Innovation of Acoustic Research on Biomedical Applications

Innovation of Acoustic Research on Biomedical Applications

Innovation of Acoustic Research on Biomedical Applications Jun Qin, Ph. D. Assistant Professor Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering The College of Engineering Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, USA Acoustic Research Projects in Our Lab 1. Applications on Therapeutic Ultrasound --- Innovation of Shock Wave lithotripsy (SWL) on Treatment of Kidney Stone Diseases --- Cavitation Bubbles Cell Interaction for Ultrasound

Enhanced Gene Activation 2. Applications on Audible Sound --- Research on Noise-Induced Human Hearing Loss --- Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Tinnitus PART I: Comparison of Electrohydraulic (EH) and Electromagnetic (EM) SWLs Introduction to SWLs.

Characterization of Stone fragmentation in vitro and in vivo acoustic fields Shock Wave lithotripsy P+ Lithotripter shock wave

P- Electromagnetic (EM) Shock Wave Generator Widely use in the newer generation lithotripters Stable and highly reproducible shock waves, long life time High peak pressure and narrow focal beam size Newer generation machines:

Less effective in stone comminution Higher propensity for tissue injury 1st generation--Dornier HM-3: Gold standard Newer is not better! Why? Comparison of EH and EM Lithotripters Electrohydraulic: Unmodified HM-3 at 20 kV Electromagnetic Siemens Modularis at E4.0

In vitro comparison Acoustic fields Stone fragmentation In vivo comparison Stone fragmentation Acoustic Field Measurement Light Spot Hydrophone (LSHD-2) (Siemens/University of Erlangen-Nuremberg) Pressure Waveforms at Focus Dual-Peak Structure 1st P+ 1st

P+ 2nd P+ PP- HM3 at 20 kV Modularis at E4.0 Pressure Distribution and Characteristics of Acoustic Fields Peak P+ Peak P- -6 dB Beam Size, -6dB Beam Size, Effective (MPa)

(MPa) Head-Foot (mm) Left-Right (mm) Energy (mJ) HM3 at 20 kV Modularis at E4.0 48.9 1.3 54.3 1.0 -10.7 0.6 -14.4 3.4 12.5 6.8 9.3

6.6 42.9 62.1 Stone Fragmentation in a Finger Cot Holder Finger Cot Holder 15mm Stone fragments are always kept in a 15 mm diameter area during SWL Do not represent stone fragmentation

in vivo New Stone Holder: Membrane Holder Membrane Holder Finger Cot Holder 30 mm 30 mm 15mm Stone fragments are always kept in a 15 mm diameter area

during SWL Do not represent stone fragmentation in vivo Allow fragments to accumulate & spread out laterally Mimic more closely stone fragmentation in vivo

Focal Area of HM-3 2000 shocks in vivo Spreading of Fragments in a Membrane Holder 0 shocks 50 shocks Focal Area of HM-3

100 shocks 250 shocks 500 shocks 1000 shocks 1500 shocks 2000 shocks Stone Fragmentation in a Member Holder Membrane Holder 30 mm

Allow fragments to accumulate & spread out laterally Mimic more closely stone fragmentation in vivo Stone Fragmentation in vivo Summary

of PART I Stone fragmentation produced by the EM lithotripter is lower than that of the EH lithotripter both in vivo and in the membrane holder. The acoustic field characterization demonstrates two distinct differences between EM and EH lithotripters 2nd compressive component in EM pulse, which could reduce maximum bubble size by 50%

EM lithotripter has much narrower beam size than EH lithotripter PART II: Development of a Noise Exposure System for Research on Impulse Noise Induced Hearing Loss Anatomy Noise of Human Ear Induced Hearing Loss Development

of the Impulse Noise Exposure System Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) When an individuals hearing is damaged or altered by noise One of the most common occupational disabilities in the United States More than 30,000,000 American workers exposed to unsafe noise levels at their job Estimated 600 million people worldwide exposed to hazardous noise levels

Anatomy of the Human Ear Pinna Tragus Exterior Auditory Canal Tympanic Membrane Ossicles Scala Vestibuli Scala Tympani Cochlea Anatomical Areas Affected by Different Noise Exposure 1) Gaussian Noise (Steady State Noise): Cochlea and Stria Vascularis 2) Impulse/Impact Noise: Cochlea and Stria Vascularis and

possible tympanic membrane and ossicular damage depending on level 3) Kurtosis Noise (complex noise): A combination of Gaussian and impulse/impact noise which can damage all of the above areas depending on the noise content. Noise Exposure System Impulse Noise Friedlanders Wave (http://www.arl.army.mil/www/default.cfm?page=3 52) P(t) Ps

e t / t * (1 t t ) = peak sound *pressure Ps t* = the time at which the pressure crosses the xaxis Simulated Wave vs. Field-Measured Wave Peak SPL = 158 dB 400

300 200 1500 100 0 1000 -100 Pressure (Pa)

E R U S S E R P 500 -200 0 4

6 8 10 TIME IN SECONDS 10 0 -500 0

1 2 3 Tim e (m s) 4 5 6 -3

Peak Pressure vs. Output Voltage P(t) SPL 20 dB log 10 Pref Animal Study Verifying the Impulse Noise Induced Hearing Loss Animal Model: Chinchilla 10150daBniSmPaLls were tested

Noise Exposure: impulse noise with peak SPL=155 dB at 2 Hz pulse repartition rate for 75 seconds (150 pulses). Auditory brainstem response (ABR) were measured before and 21 days after noise Animal Study Results 105 dB SPL Summary of PART II A digital noise exposure system has been developed to generate the impulse noise. The waveforms of impulse noise are comparable to the field measurement test performed by the U.S. Army Impulse noise produces significant hearing

loss in animal study. Future work includes Kurtosis noise simulate and high level impulse noise generation. Upcoming Conference For upcoming conferences please follow the below mentioned link http://www.conferenceseries.com/

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