Inspection and Review

Inspection and Review

Inspection and Review The main objective of an Inspection or a Review is to detect defects. (Not for Giving Alternative Solutions) This activity and procedure was first formalized by Mike Fagan in IBM during a period when CPU was still much more costly than people, and system complexity increased to the point where software quality became a huge issue. (early 1970s) Inspections and reviews are testing of software artifacts without the actual execution of code and is especially suited for : 1. 2. 3. Requirements documents Design documents Plans and Tests Cases Inspection as Natural Part of Software Development Inspect

Document Requirements Analysis most often used Inspect Document Design less often used Inspect Test Cases Inspect Code & doc. Code & Manuals Inspect Test Cases Functional Test Component

Test System Test Inspect Test Cases least often used Introduction of Inspection/Review Activity Some Resistance 1. 2. 3. 4. Whats the value? Why so formal? How to include into an already tight schedule? Who should be involved? What do you think ? 1. 2.

3. 4. Compared the cost of bug found by customer ? Would people take this seriously, otherwise? Would code & test time decrease enough? How reliable are your friends? in telling you the truth? Introduction of Review/Inspection Activities Must have complete buy-in (just like any policy) Upper management Project leaders Team members Must provide training for inspection/review:

Not natural for people to look for defects Delivering negative comments in a positive fashion Focus on defects and not just better solution Prioritize the problems and not dwell on minor problems Agree on defect types, definitions, and priorities Must keep good records and act on the result General Review Sub-Process Framework Appoint a moderator Report Result(s) Plan and Schedule the Review

Follow-up & Re-inspection Conduct the Review & Analyze results Rework (if needed) rework and re-inspections are optional and needed only if the review results did not meet some prior criteria Inspection/Review Sub-Process (more details) Assuming no Re-review Responsible Project mgr Moderator Reviewers Moderator, Reviewers & Review material owner Activity ( almost sequential )

Appoint moderator Plan, schedule, organize the review Prepare for review Conduct the review output responsible/trained moderator review date set; review material disseminated; review team organized, review rules set; review-checklist (if applicable) established materials read; organized set of defects found while preparing for the actual review; priorities of found defects set; written down questions for the review Pre-review: review rules re-explained, Post review: list of agreed upon prioritized problems; list of resolved problems; list of questions to be resolved (all lists must be trackable) Decision: re-review needed decision, problem resolution schedule Inspection/Review Sub-Process (more details) Responsible review material

owner Activity Fix the defects in the material and provide them to the moderator Moderator & reviewers Ensures the fixes are indeed correct by having the reviewer sign off Moderator Prepare the final report and disseminate the final review report output Fixed material Signed off Fixed material Final review report which contains the previously agreed upon statistics from the review. Participants of Review Author of the material

Inspectors : customer designer requirements analyst programmer tester trainer Moderator Trained Participants Moderator : schedule and ensure the inspectors are ready for inspection keep the group to the major task of defect finding

moderate the discussions and keep the activity moving arbitrate and decide on the defect severity level record, analyze, and report on the review results follow up on the review report on the final result Inspectors: look for defects first versus look for best alternatives establish what works (not promoted by all practitioners of inspections) critical with the product, not the person (very hard to do, but must) participate in deciding on the severity of the defects found take the knowledge to their own downstream domain of activities Review Preparations Schedule : material reading time by the participants actual inspection time

defect fixing and rework time follow-up (re-review if necessary) documenting and reporting on inspection results Defect severity definitions severity levels and defect types Rework and Re-Inspection guidelines Review Preparation (cont.) Review for defects - - - How? Have an idea of whats important Consider the categories of items that are important Functionality Reliability Usability Performance Security Etc. Within each category, prioritize the items (e.g.) Functionality

Product Installation : priority 1 Existence of a specific function or feature: priority 1 Product displays error messages: priority 2 Etc. Usability Tool bar icons: priority 1 Tool bar icon explanations: priority 1 Drop down window defaults: priority 1 Prioritization of Drop down window defaults: priority 3 Etc. Have an idea of whats important (problems) Example: Defect Severity levels by problem impact Level 1 : Catastrophic error which causes the whole system to be down and possible loss of life. Level 2 : An error that will cause a major functional failure and there is no work around. Level 3 : An error that will cause a major functional error

but there is a manual work around. Level 4 : An error that will cause a minor error or system degradation. Level 5 : A cosmetic level error that may be fixed at the next most convenient time How do these apply to Requirements Review? Rework and Re-Inspection Guidelines 1. These guidelines must be set ahead of time. 2. What should rework guidelines be ? All defects found in an inspection should be reworked and fixed? All severity level 1 through level 3 must be reworked and fixed before the inspected artifact may be declared complete. Should requirements and design artifacts be under a stricter rule ? 3. What should Re-Inspection guideline be ? Re-inspect the complete artifact if there is x number of severity level 1 problems ?

Re-inspect only the rework and fixes for severity 1 and 2 problems ? What Have We Learned ? Inspections and reviews are expensive and time consuming Inspections and reviews do bring down defect rates and also : force some discipline into an organization brings awareness of quality focus helps in setting milestone marks (inspection exit) Inspection and Reviews should be used selectively only on non-executables error prone and complex areas new areas (new functions, new employees, new domain)

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