Integrating 21st Century Skills in Flipped EFL Classrooms
Integrating 21st Century Skills in Flipped EFL Classrooms Kerry Pusey, Evelyn Doman, and Marie Webb University of Macau English Language Centre Overview of Presentation What is a flipped classroom? Motivation for study Description of the study Video examples Discussion Conclusions, implications, and recommendations What is a Flipped
Classroom? An inverse classroom All homework is done in class; all classwork is done at home Motivation for the Study Role of technology at our institution Popular discourse on flipping Literature in flipped research is lacking and even less in the ESL/EFL context Few studies are actual experimental or quasi-experimental studies (Bishop & Verleger, 2013) Benefits of Flipping
A flipped class allows more time for student engagement with materials teacher to answer more questions online materials and videos to be accessed 24/7 more individualized instruction The Present Study A university in Macao, China High-intermediate integrated skills course Required General Education English course Experimental group (flipped): 4 classes Control group (non-flipped): 2 classes 4 different teachers How we Used Technology to Flip
Research Questions For this study, the following research questions were addressed: RQ1: Do students prefer flipped over traditional (i.e., non-flipped) classes? RQ2: Which teaching methods do students believe are more effective for learning? Research Questions (cont) RQ3: What are students attitudes towards using online materials? RQ4: How does flipping the EFL classroom change the dynamics of teacher-student and student-student interaction? Methods: Participants
All first or second year students Experimental group: N=69 Control group: N=47 94% from Macao or Mainland China Participants: Demographics at a Glance Class
Flipped Number of Student s 20 Average Gender Age M/F Macau Mainland China
Hong Kong Taiwan Portugal Canada 18 11/9 2 17 0
0 0 1 FrontFlipped 15 19 5/10 8 7
0 0 0 0 BackFlipped 34 18 11/23 19
14 0 1 0 0 NonFlipped 47 19 10/37
15 25 4 0 3 0 116 18.5 37/79
40% 54% 2.5% .05% 2.5% .05% Total Data Collection The data for this study consisted of: Survey 1 at midterm
Survey 2 at end of course Surveys developed by teachers/researchers Administered online (through Survey Monkey) Classroom observations Teachers reflections Other Considerations for Study Initially planned to flip entire classes, but later decided to only flip certain modules (for practical reasons) Modules
selected based on predicted amount of teacher-fronted instruction required Results Over time, flipped students were satisfied with the flipped approach (RQ1). I prefer watching video lessons at home (such as the annotation video) rather than live teacher instruction in class. Strongly Disagree Flipped Survey 1 Flipped Survey 2 Non-flipped survey 1 Non-flipped survey 2 Disagree
Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Results (cont) Students believed teacher-centered instruction was most effective for learning. (RQ2). Which do you prefer? Your teachers instruction in class or the online videos provided? other Flipped Unflipped
nuetral (no preference) The online videos provided Your teachers instruction in class 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Results (cont) Students in the flipped classes wanted more online instruction than non-flipped (RQ3). Would you like to have more online instruction before each class (for example short lectures, videos, PPTs)? No online instruction before class A lot less online instrution before class Flipped
Non-flipped Less online instruction before class The amount is ok More online instruction before class A lot more online instruction before class 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Results (cont) More student responsibility, less teacher instruction in-class. More student-student interaction (RQ4). My English classroom provides me more opportunity than my other classes to communicate with other students. Strongly Disagree
50 60 Discussion Over time students in the flipped classes became more comfortable with online instruction. Discussion (cont) Most students enjoyed using Moodle to submit online assignments and to take quizzes/tests
I like submitting assignments, taking quizzes, and receiving teacher feedback online through Moodle. Strogly Disagree Disagree Flipped Non-flipped Neutral Agree Strogly Agree 0 5 10
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Video Examples
Here is 1 video sample of what our flipped classrooms looked like. Drawbacks of Flipping More preparation time for the teacher Students must be trained to use new technology Students may initially feel that they have more work outside of class Technical problems are common Availability of resources Teacher Reflections Instructional support materials that will be used by students remotely (or online) should be well thought out, designed and prepared well in advance of the start of a semester.
Teacher from a flipped classroom I could tell that the students werent interested in the flipped model initially. However, after the 7th week I began to see a change in my students attitudes. Teacher from a flipped classroom During the end of the semester especially, I really wished a lot of the assignments (descriptions, rubrics and grading criteria, examples of model work, etc.) were explained online (i.e., flipped) in order to save class time. Teacher from a non-flipped classroom Recommendations Use technology purposefully Dont feel obligated to flip entire class
Take it one step at a time when flipping Consider how students respond, and adjust lessons accordingly Collaborate and recycle/reuse content whenever possible References 1. Baranovic, K. 2013. Flipping the First-Year Composition Classroom: Slouching Toward the Pedagogically Hip. 2. Berrett, D. 2012. How Flipping the Classroom Can Improve the Traditional Lecture. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review 78(1), 36-41. 3. Bishop & Verleger, 2013.The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research. 120th American Society of Engineering Education Annual
Conference & Exposition, Atlanta, June 23-26. 3. Butt, A. 2014. Student Views on the Use of a Flipped Classroom Approach : evidence from Australia. Business Education & Accreditation, 6 (1), 33-43. 5. Hughes, H. 2012. Introduction to Flipping the College Classroom. In T. Amiel & B. Wilson (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2012 (pp. 2434-2438).
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