Introduction to The Holocaust

Introduction to The Holocaust

The Holocaust Steps to Genocide 1933 to 1945 What was The Holocaust?

holocaust (noun): Greek word meaning sacrifice by fire The Holocaust (proper noun): The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, statesponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime Genocide (noun):

The crime of destroying a group of people because of their ethnic, national, racial, or religious identity Genocide was NOT the first step! Concentration Camp: Upon their ascent to power on

January 30, 1933, the Nazis established concentration camps for the imprisonment of all enemies of their regime Sentences could be a few months or a few years Nazi Target Groups Ethnicities: Jews & Gypsies (Roma), Nationalities: Slavs (Poles & Russians) Degenerates: Homosexuals, The

Mentally & Physically Disabled Political rivals: Communists & Socialists Religions: Jehovah Witnesses & Jews Asocials: Anybody else who opposed the Nazis First they came for the Communists, and I didn't object - For I wasn't a Communist; Then they came for the

Socialists, and I didn't object - For I wasn't a Socialist; Then they came for the labour leaders, and I didn't object - For I wasn't a labour leader; Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't object - For I wasn't a Jew; Then they came for me

- And there was no one left to object. Martin Niemoller, (1892-1984 ) German Protestant Pastor, & Nazi Political Prisoner from 1937 to 1945 Three Steps to Genocide of Jewish People You cannot 1.

2. 3. live among us as Jews You cannot live among us You cannot

Burning of Jewish books, including the Torah, 1934 Step 1: You cannot live among us as Jews You cannot live among us as

Jews. Prejudiced Attitudes: Stereotyping Discrimination & Harassment Systemic Racism Step#1: You cannot live among us as Jews.

Europe has a long history of Anti-Semitism Anti-Semitism (noun): Hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious, ethnic, or racial group Step#1: You cannot live

among us as Jews. The personificatio n of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the

Jew ~ Adolf Hitler You cannot live among us as Jews. You cannot live among us as Jews. Above: Juden Rause (Jews Get Out), Nazi childrens board game A group at exit 2 are off to Palestine

You cannot live among us as Jews. How did they know who was Jewish? November 1935 German churches begin to collaborate with Nazis by supplying records indicating who is Christian State of the art data processing was used to take a census in all German

territory. Early on the Nazis included questions on religious heritage The machine allowed Nazi You cannot live among us as Jews. In 1934, Nazi scientists developed this kit Contained 29

samples of human hair Samples were used by geneticists, anthropologists, & doctors to determine ancestry Hair color also became a means to prove the supposed

You cannot live among us as Jews. You cannot live among us as Jews. You cannot live among us as Jews. Germans were suspicious of Jews who were seen as

conspiring (with the help of communists) to take over the world You cannot live among us as Jews. On April 1, 1933, Hitler declared a

one-day boycott of Jewish shops Many German citizens voluntarily participated You cannot live among us as Jews. May 1933,

Jewish books were burned in public bonfires You cannot live among us as Jews. The Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of German

Blood and Honor, Germany, September 15, 1935. The Nuremberg Laws turned prejudice & discrimination into systemic racism Examples: 1935: Jewish Newspapers could no longer be sold

1936: Jews lost the right to vote 1938: Jews had to surrender drivers licenses & car You cannot live among us as Jews. The Nuremberg Laws also classified degrees of Jewish

blood One use for this classification was to permit or to deny couples the right to marry (and thus to reproduce) One proposed solution to the Jewish problem was

You cannot live among us as Jews. By 1938, all Jews were required to carry identification cards Jewish passports & papers were marked with a J By 1941, Jews were required to

wear yellow Star You cannot live among us as Jews. Nov 9-10, 1938: Kristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass) Nazis attack Jewish homes, businesses & synagogues

Jews killed, injured and Step 2: You cannot live among us You cannot live among us. Jewish Refugees: Nazis try to force Jewish emigration

After admitting tens of thousands of Jewish refugees, France, GB, and the U.S. doors close their You cannot live among us. In 1939, 850 Jewish refugees attempt to

enter British-controlled Palestine illegally. British officials arrested 850 European Jewish immigrants and interned them in a detention center near Haifa Similarly, in 1939 the German

refugee ship St. Louis attempted to find safe harbour for its Jewish passengers in You cannot live among us. Jewish Ghettos: After emigration plan failed to get rid of all of the Jews, Hitler ordered Jews in

all countries under his control to be moved to designated cities Ghettos: segregated Jewish areas You cannot live among us. Evacuating the Jews from Germany, the Nazis created compulsory Jewish Quarters in most Polish cities and towns. The ghetto was a section of a city where all Jews from the surrounding areas were forced to reside, surrounded by barbed wire or walls.

You cannot live among Nazi ghettos were a preliminary us. step in the annihilation of the Jews. Ghettos became transition areas, used as collection points for deportation to concentration & death camps. You cannot live among us.

By spring of 1941, conditions inside Polands Warsaw Ghetto were hellish: Food was scarce, clothing consisted many of old rags, and medical supplies were virtually non-existent. Child mortality rates skyrocketed. Left: Orphan sleeping in Warsaw ghetto, 1941 You cannot live among us.

You cannot live among us. You cannot live among us. In 1941, German Jews were taken into protective custody and deported to concentration camps, built in eastern Germany & Poland.

You cannot live among Jews carried their few us. remaining possessions to train stations. They were then transported in freight and cattle cars. Not only were there no chairs, but the trains also lacked sanitation, food, water, and air. You cannot live among us In 1941, Romania also began to deport its Jews.

Fewer than half the 2500 Romanian Jews on the Lasi train survived the eight day train journey. Death due to exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and suffocation was common on the train transports. You cannot live among us. Concentration Camps Camps were built on railroad lines

for efficient transportation On arrival, all are given numberssome have this tattooed on their wrist You cannot live among us. WHY HAVE THE CAMPS?

Essential to Nazis systematic oppression and eventual mass murder of enemies of Nazi Germany Slave labor moved them towards their ultimate goalannihilation by Step 3:

You cannot live You cannot live. The Final Solution: The code name for the planned genocide of the Jews of Europe Jews were rounded up & sent to concentration/labor camps By 1942, Nazis built extermination camps (death

camps) with gas chambers that could kill as many as 6,000 Step #3: You Cannot Live Einsatzgruppen Mobile killing units had began killing operations aimed at entire Jewish communities in the 1930s Thought to have killed

as many as 1 million people in six months Vigorous participation of local police helped facilitate the killing You cannot live. 1941 Ukraine, members of Einsatzkommandos and local Ukrainian nationalists murdered 25 000 Jews in huge open pits. Mass shootings and graves in Estonia and Poland were inefficient and demoralized German soldiers.

The Germans began to seek a more permanent solution to You cannot live. On January 20, 1942, 15 high-ranking Nazi Party and German government officials gathered at a villa in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee to discuss and coordinate the implementation of what they called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question." Nearly all knew about the deportations and killings already

in progress. You cannot live. At the Wannsee Conference, SS Officer Adolf Eichmann (1906 - 1962) was given the task of implementing the Final Solution Eichmann organized the round-ups and the train convoys to the extermination

camps Eichmann observed that poison gas was already being used to exterminate the mentally handicapped He devised the gassing You cannot live. The SS were put in charge of the day-today operations of the death camps. Ten days after

the meeting, on January 30, 1942, Hitler proclaimed that the results of this war will be the total annihilation of the Jews.

You cannot live. You cannot live. The Germans deported the Dutch Jews east starting in mid-1942

Most believed they were going to labor camps Few You cannot live. The sign over the entrance to Auschwitz said Work makes one free. However,

Auschwitz was NOT a labor camp. It was actually the largest of the death camps. You cannot live. Inmates of a death camp Many who were not immediately taken to the

gas chambers, died more slowly from malnutrition & overwork You cannot live. Nazi doctors did high pressure experiments (left) and radiation experiments

(below) Once selected, You you began the process of extermina tion Your luggage

would be left for collection later cannot live. You cannot live. First you removed your

valuable s You cannot live. Then you removed your shoes and clothes

You cannot live. Then they removed your hair Finally You cannot live. Prisoners were sent to gas chambers

disguised as showers Zyklon B gas used to gas people in 3 15 minutes Up to 8000 people were gassed per day at AuschwitzBirkenau, the largest death camp with 4 You cannot live. After

Prisoners moved dead bodies to massive crematoriums Large industrial ovens were used to cremate the remains. Jewish inmates operated the ovens under SS supervision

Gold fillings from You cannot live. Major Death Factories

Sobibor 250 000 Chlemno 255 000 Majdanek 360 000 Belzec 601 500 Treblinka 750 000 - 870 000 Auschwitz-Birkenau 1 100 000 1 600 000

You cannot live. By 1945, the Nazis began to destroy crematoriums and camps as Allied troops closed in

Death Marches Between 19441945, Nazis ordered marches over long distances. Approximately 250 000 375 000 prisoners

You cannot live. 1945 - Allied soldiers liberating the camps often had to dig mass graves. On January 27, 1945, the Soviet army entered Auschwitz (largest camp) and liberated

more than 7,000 remaining prisoners, who were mostly ill and dying. You cannot live. When the British liberated Bergen-Belsen April 15, 1945, they discovered tens of thousands of unburied bodies. At 4:00 am on April

29, 1945, the last day of his life, Adolph Hitler made one last address to the German people: Above all I charge the leaders of the nation and those under them to scrupulous

observance of the laws of race and to merciless opposition to the You cannot live. Even after liberation, BergenBelsen inmates continued to die. 14 000 prisoners died from April 15

to June 20, 1945. You cannot live. 1945, Soviet troops liberated Auschwitz. Rudolf Hoess, Commander of Auschwitz, was asked if the Jews whom he had murdered had in any

way deserved their fate. He answered, Dont you see, we SS men were not supposed to think about these things ... Besides, it was something You cannot live. Many SS guards

claimed after the war that they had just been following orders. Rudolf Hoess, Commander at Auschwitz said, We were all so trained to obey orders without Left: SS guards at Sobibor

even thinking.... Death Camp, 1942 You cannot live. European Jewish Population in 1933 was 9,508,340 You cannot live.

Estimated Jewish Survivors of Holocaust: 3,546,211 You cannot live. In spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart - Diary of Anne

Frank In March 1945, Fifteen-year-old Anne Frank died at Bergen-Belsen of typhus There were some revolts. In October 1942, the Sobibor armed revolt and escape

attempt closed the camp In October 1944, Auschwitz inmates revolted, but failed to achieve their goal: the destruction of the There were some heroes. Oscar Schindler

(1908-1974) A German businessman who first profited from the war but who later saved over 1,300 Jews from the gas chambers by declaring them essential workers regardless of age or

There were some heroes. Sir Nicholas George Winton, is a British humanitarian who organized the rescue of 669 mostly Jewish children from German-occupied Czechoslovakia on the eve of the

Second World War, in an operation later known as the Czech There were some heroes. There was some justice. On November 22, 1945, the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal began.

There were some survivors. Stanislaw Shlomo Smajzner survivor of Sobibor escape Thomas Blatt survivor of Sobibor escape Did your person survive? Works Cited Chartock, Roselle and Jack Spencer. The Holocaust Years:

Society on Trial. New York: Bantam Books, 1978. Harran, Marilyn, et. al. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures. Lincolnwood: Publications International, Ltd., 2000. Schumacher, Julie A. Voices of the Holocaust. Logan: Perfection Learning Corporation, 2000.

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