Introduction to the N.C. Department of Labor OSH Division

Introduction to the N.C. Department of Labor OSH Division

Health Hazards Special Emphasis Program Presented by: Education, Training and Technical Assistance, 919-807-2875 This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Objectives After this course, students will be aware of: - NCDOL Health Hazards Special Emphasis Program (SEP) for: Lead Asbestos Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) Isocyanates Silica

- Including exposures, health effects and abatement methods for each This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Health Hazards SEP Overexposures to these chemicals can lead to serious health effects OSH Division has increased the number of inspections to focus on industries that use these chemicals and substances This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Health Hazards SEP Lead

29 CFR 1910.1025 29 CFR 1926.62 This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1025 1926.62 Lead Standard Means metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps - Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds Exposure sources - Lead-based paint, batteries, battery recycling, foundries, welding/cutting and brazing

- Lead shot, indoor/outdoor shooting ranges This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Lead Health Effects 1910.1025, Appendix A 1926.62, Appendix A Acute effects: Show up sooner usually after high exposure - Symptoms can include metallic taste, stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea and black stools which could potentially cause intoxication, coma, respiratory arrest, or death - Short term occupational exposures of this magnitude are highly unusual, but not impossible

This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Lead Health Effects 1910.1025, Appendix A 1926.62, Appendix A Chronic effects: Take longer to develop and often are attributed to lower cumulative exposures over time - Symptoms can include tiredness, weakness, weight loss, insomnia, headache, nervous irritability, fine tremors, numbness, dizziness, anxiety and hyperactivity which could potentially lead to: Damage of the nervous system and brain

Anemia Kidney disease This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Lead Exposure Limits 1910.1025 1926.62 Permissible exposure limit (PEL) = 50 g/m

as an 8 hour time-weighted average (TWA) - Employers shall implement engineering controls and safe work practices to prevent exposure - Employers shall provide protective clothing and where necessary, and respiratory protection in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134 Action level (AL) = 30 g/m as an 8 hour TWA This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1025 1926.62 Medical Surveillance In General Industry, employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for employees

who are or may be exposed above the action level for more than 30 days per year - Appendix C - Medical Surveillance Guidelines In Construction, employer shall provide initial medical surveillance for any employee exposed at or above the action level for any one day This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1025 1926.62 Abatement Methods Elimination Substitution Engineering controls - Mechanical ventilation

- Isolation Administrative controls - Housekeeping - Personal hygiene practices - Designated break areas Personal protective equipment (PPE) - Respiratory protection This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Health Hazards SEP Asbestos 29 CFR 1910.1001 29 CFR 1926.1101

This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1001 1926.1101 Asbestos Name given to a group of naturally occurring fibrous silicate minerals mined for their useful properties such as thermal insulation, chemical and thermal stability, and high tensile strength Used in building materials for resistance against heat and corrosion Asbestos includes: - Chrysotile

- Crocidolite - Amosite - Tremolite - Anthophyllite - Actinolite Nova Development This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1001

1926.1101 Asbestos Airborne fibers range from 5 m or greater, with a length-to-diameter ratio of at least 3 to 1 ACM: Asbestos-containing material, any material containing >1% asbestos PACM: Presumed asbestos-containing material thermal system insulation and surfacing material found in buildings constructed no later than 1980 This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

Asbestos Health Effects 1910.1001 1926.1101 Asbestosis: A serious, progressive, long-term noncancer disease of the lungs Lung Cancer: Causes the largest number of deaths related to asbestos exposure - Most common symptoms of lung cancer are coughing and a change in breathing Mesothelioma: A rare form of cancer found in the thin lining (membrane) of the lung, chest, abdomen, and heart - Most cases are linked to asbestos exposures This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1001

1926.1101 Exposure Limits Permissible exposure limit - 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc) of air as an 8 hour TWA Excursion limit - Not more than 1 f/cc averaged over 30 minutes Monitoring - Initially for workers who are or may be exposed at or above the PEL and/or above the excursion limit - Periodic if above PEL or excursion limit This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1001

1926.1101 Responsibility Building/facility owner Removal/abatement of asbestos is covered by 29 CFR 1926 (Construction) Must adhere to: - Multi-employer worksite Hazards abated by contractor who created Inform others of measures to control exposures Adjacent employer will check containment General contractor (GC) requires compliance - Competent person This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

1910.1001 1926.1101 Medical Surveillance Required when above PEL/excursion limit - Pre-placement examinations Medical/work history Complete physical exam with emphasis on respiratory system, cardiovascular system and digestive tract Completion of questionnaire Appendix D Chest X-Ray (Roentgenogram) Pulmonary function test (PFT) Any additional tests required by the Physician or other Licensed Healthcare Professional (PLHCP) - Periodic exam (annually) This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of

Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1001 1926.1101 Respirator Selection When is respiratory protection required? - Above PEL - Based on Class of work performed Provided in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134 (b) - (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) - (m) - Proper selection per 29 CFR 1910 or 29 CFR 1926 - High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters for all air purifying respirators (APR) This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

- No filtering face pieces (dust masks) Abatement 1910.1001 1926.1101 Elimination Substitution Engineering controls - Mechanical ventilation Administrative controls - Procedures - Housekeeping - Hygiene facilities PPE - Respiratory protection This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of

Labor for safety and health training. - Protective work clothing Health Hazards SEP Hexavalent Chromium 29 CFR 1910.1026 29 CFR 1926.1126 This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1026 1926.1126 Hexavalent Chromium Toxic form of chromium metal that is generally

man-made Used in many industrial applications primarily for its anti-corrosive properties Can be created during certain hot work processes where the original form of chromium was not hexavalent This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Examples of Cr(VI) Compounds Ammonium dichromate Calcium chromate 1910.1026 1926.1126

(NH4)2Cr2O7 CaCrO4 Chromium trioxide or chromic acid CrO3 Lead chromate (chromium yellow) PbCrO4 Potassium chromate K2CrO4 Potassium dichromate Sodium chromate Strontium chromate Zinc chromate K2Cr2O7 Na2CrO4 SrCrO4

ZnCrO4 This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1026 1926.1126 Affected Operations - Electroplating - Chromium dye and catalyst production - Welding on stainless steel or Cr(VI) painted surfaces - Glass manufacturing

- Painting Aerospace Auto body repair - Chromate pigment and chemical production - Plastic colorant production - Construction - Refractory brick restoration - Paint removal from bridges - Traffic painting This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1026

1926.1126 Health Effects Lung cancer in workers who breathe airborne hexavalent chromium Irritation or damage to the nose, throat, and lung (respiratory tract) if hexavalent chromium breathed at high levels Irritation or damage to the eyes and skin if hexavalent chromium contacts these organs in high concentrations This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Major Provisions

- - 1910.1026 1926.1126 Scope - Hygiene areas and practices Permissible exposure limit - Medical surveillance Exposure determination dates Recordkeeping - Communication of Methods of compliance hazards

Respiratory protection - Regulated areas* Protective work clothing - Housekeeping* and equipment *General Industry only This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1026 1926.1126 Exposure Limits Permissible exposure limit - 5 g/m3, calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average Action level

- 2.5 g/m3 Exposure determination - See paragraph (d) for more specifics This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1026 1926.1126 Monitoring Scheduled - Initial monitoring indicates exposures are: Below the AL: monitoring can be discontinued At or above the AL: monitor every 6 months Above the PEL: monitor every 3 months - Periodic personal monitoring

Performance-oriented option - To determine 8 hour TWA for each employee based on any combination of the following: Air-monitoring data Historical monitoring data Objective data This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Regulated Areas 1910.1026(e) General Industry employers only - Areas where exposures exceed or can be reasonably expected to exceed the PEL Must be demarcated from other areas Must limit access to employees who have a need to be

there This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Medical Surveillance 1910.1026 1926.1126 Occupationally exposed for 30 days or more at or above the AL or employees who are showing signs/symptoms of exposure Conducted within 30 days after initial assignment Annually Within 30 days after PLHCP written medical opinion Employee shows signs and symptoms of adverse health

effects Within 30 days after exposure of uncontrolled release Termination of employee This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Abatement 1910.1026 1926.1126 Elimination Substitution Engineering controls - Mechanical ventilation Administrative controls - Housekeeping - Hygiene facilities - Regulated areas of work

PPE - Respiratory protection - Protective work clothing This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Health Hazards SEP Isocyanates 29 CFR 1910.1000 29 CFR 1926.55 This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Isocyanates 1910.1000 1926.55

Compounds containing the isocyanate group (- NCO) - React with compounds containing alcohol (hydroxyl) groups to produce polyurethane polymers, which are components of polyurethane foams, thermoplastic elastomers, spandex fibers, and polyurethane paints Raw materials that make up all polyurethane products PELs/Threshold Limit Values (TLV), are very low (<1 ppm) This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1000 1926.55

Health Effects Health effects of isocyanate exposure include irritation of skin and mucous membranes, chest tightness, and difficult breathing - Isocyanates include compounds classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. Main effects of hazardous exposures are occupational asthma and other lung problems, as well as irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and skin This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1000

1926.55 Medical Surveillance It is recommended that workers exposed to isocyanates at or above the PEL or TLV undergo annual medical examinations and health surveillance under the supervision of a PLHCP Physical examination should detail the workers demographic and occupational history A pulmonary function test (spirometry) is recommended as well as a blood sample to monitor the systemic effects This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

Abatement 1910.1000 1926.55 Elimination Substitution Engineering controls - Mechanical ventilation Administrative controls - Housekeeping - Personal hygiene - Regulated areas of work PPE - Respiratory protection - Protective work clothing This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

Health Hazards SEP Silica 29 CFR 1910.1053 29 CFR 1926.1153 This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1053 1926.1153 Silica Silicosis, an irreversible but preventable disease, is the illness most closely associated with occupational exposure to the material, which also is known as silica dust This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of

Labor for safety and health training. Silica 1910.1053 1926.1153 If employer only suspects that silica is a hazard at the workplace, employer is still required to communicate this potential hazard to all employees Examples include: - Abrasive blasting - Blast furnaces - Cement manufacturing - Ceramics, clay, and pottery This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of

Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1053 1926.1153 Silica - Concrete mixing - Demolition - Electronics industry - Foundry industry: grinding, molding, shakeout, core room (high risk) - Hand molding, casting, and forming - Jack hammer operations - Manufacturing abrasives, paints, soaps, and glass - Mining - Rolling and finishing mills This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of

Labor for safety and health training. Health Effects 1910.1053 1926.1153 Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica is associated with the development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airway diseases - Exposures may also be related to the development of autoimmune disorders, chronic renal disease, and other adverse health effects USDOL Photo Archive This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of

Labor for safety and health training. 1910.1053 1926.1153 Silica Exposure Limits AL = 25 g/m as an 8 hour TWA - Written Exposure Control Plan (ECP) PEL = 50 g/m as an 8 hour TWA - Employers must use engineering controls to prevent or reduce exposure - Respiratory protection is required when exposure remains above PEL after engineering controls are utilized or when required by Table 1 This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

Medical Surveillance 1910.1053 1926.1153 At no cost to the employee At a reasonable time and place General Industry - When exposed at or above 25 g/m3 for 30 or more days for any 12 consecutive months Construction - When employee is required to wear a respirator 30 or more days for any 12 consecutive months This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Specific Control Methods

1910.1153(c)(1) In Construction - Table 1 18 specific tasks Identifies specific engineering controls to use Water delivery systems Dust collection systems Fully and properly implemented controls listed Do not have to comply with PEL Do not have to conduct exposure assessment This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Table 1 - Example Equipment/Task Handheld power saws

(any blade diameter) Engineering and work practice control methods 1926.1153(c)(1) Required respiratory protection and minimum assigned protection factor (APF) 4 hours/shift >4 hours/shift None APF 10

APF 10 APF 10 Use saw equipped with integrated water delivery system that continuously feeds water to the blade Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to minimize dust emissions: When used outdoors When used indoors or in an enclosed area This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

Abatement 1910.1053 1926.1153 Elimination Substitution Engineering controls - Mechanical ventilation Administrative controls - Housekeeping - Personal hygiene - Regulated areas of work PPE - Respiratory protection - Protective work clothing This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

Summary In this course, we discussed the following: - NCDOL Health Hazards Special Emphasis Program for: Lead Asbestos Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) Isocyanates Silica - Including exposures, health effects and abatement methods for each This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Thank You For Attending! Final Questions?

This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

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