Investigating Conceptual Change in Science Teaching and Learning:

Investigating Conceptual Change in Science Teaching and Learning: How Establishing Community, Dialoging, and Journaling Work Together to Foster the Conceptual Change Process Sarah Laurens Whitehills Elementary Sixth Grade Rationale How to establish an environment conducive to the exchange of

ideas as well as tools to document the students conceptual change process How to effectively teach for conceptual change within your districts science curriculum Interactive constructivist model of teaching and learning: challenge students ideas promote deep processing achieve conceptual change in science learning

Establishing a Learning Community Learning-centered classroom focuses on how and why work is being done The activities themselves create the quality to be fostered in the larger learning community Sense-making: focus is a shared responsibility (collaborative)

[Kathleen Roth 1992] Discussion and Journaling in Science Observations past experiences (relevancy) comparisons misconceptions Provide extensive experiences (I-AIM model) [] available evidence shows very clearly that the role of talk and social interaction

is so significant that it cannot be ignored. It is therefore necessary for theoretical accounts to deal with both social (i.e. communicative) and cognitive aspects of conceptual change. [Mercer 2008] Functions of Journaling Stimulate students to clarify & articulate positions & ideas (still image for revisiting & revising) Elicit ideas in order to compare,

contrast, build, and change them Extend and support the overall inquiry process [Roth 1992] Classroom Considerations Establishing community takes time Each student begins and finishes at a unique place in the learning process Reading & assessing student knowledge based upon journaling

requires more patience & feedback on the teachers behalf The Issue of Regression in Conceptual Understanding Conceptual regression is likely to occur when more difficult tasks are encountered [Watson & Kelly 2009] Conceptual change in science learning is slow Science curriculum must take into

account the developmental progression of student understanding and conceptual change when planning pacing Cognitive Apprenticeship Cognitive apprenticeship involves teachers modeling scientific skills and coaching students in their attempts to handle the practical & conceptual tools in the sciences This can be accomplished via community building, discussion

and journaling alongside scientific investigations and observations [Wolff-Micheal Roth 1991] Discussing, Experiencing, and Journaling to Make Meaning Bibliography Cennamo, K.S., et al. (1995). A "Layers of Negotiation" Model for

Designing Constructivist Learning Materials. Proceedings of the 1995 Annual National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Anaheim, CA. Chang, W-H. (1996). Introducing Philosophy of Science through an Activity for In-Service Teachers to Experience Social Constructing of Knowledge. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (St. Louis, MO). Dillon, J. (2008). Discussion, Debate and Dialog: Changing Minds about Conceptual Change Research in Science Education. Cultural Studies of Science Education 3, 397-416. Driver, R. et al. (1986). A Constructivist Approach to Curriculum Development in Science. Studies in Science Education 13, 105-122. Duschl, R. (2008). Science Education in Three-Part Harmony: Balancing Conceptual, Epistemic, and Social Learning Goals. Review of Research in Education 32, 268-291.

Bibliography (contd.) Havu-Nuutinen, S. (2005). Examining Young Children's Conceptual Change Process in Floating and Sinking from a Social Constructivist Perspective. International Journal of Science Education 27, 259-279. Mercer, N. (2008). Changing Our Minds: A Commentary on "Conceptual Change--A Discussion of Theoretical,

Methodological and Practical Challenges for Science Education. Cultural Studies of Science Education 3, 351-362. Milne, C. et al. (2008). Understanding Conceptual Change: Connecting and Questioning. Cultural Studies of Science Education 3, 417-434 Roth, K.J. (1992). The Role of Writing in Creating a Science Learning Community. Elementary Subjects Center Series 56. Roth, W-M. (1991). Aspects of Cognitive Apprenticeship in Science Teaching. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Lake Geneva, WI. Bibliography (contd.)

Tomasini, N.G. (1990). Teaching Strategies and Conceptual Change: Sinking and Floating at Elementary School Level. Shymansky, J.A. et al. (1998). Students' Perceptions and Supervisors' Rating as Assessments of InteractiveConstructivist Science Teaching in Elementary School. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, San Diego, CA. Watson, J.M. and Kelly, B.A. (2009). Development of Student Understanding of Outcomes Involving Two or More Dice. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education 7, 25-54.

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