IT Service Delivery And Support Week Ten IT Auditing and Cyber Security Spring 2014 Instructor: Liang Yao (MBA MS CIA CISA CISSP) 1 IT Service Delivery and Support Information Security
Recent Security Incidents Security Objectives Security Process Governance Information Security Risk Assessment Information Security Strategy Security Controls Implementation Security Monitoring 2 IT Service Delivery and Support Top 10 2012 Security Incidents # 10. Wyndham Hotels
credit card information were stored in plain text Data was stolen THREE times in two years Over 600,000 credit card numbers fell into the wrong hands $10.5 billion in fraudulent transactions was reported Gaining attention from the Federal Trade Commission # 9. Yahoo More than 400,000 plaintext Yahoo passwords were posted on the Internet on July 11th the "Tech-Company-Shoulda-Known-Better" factor SQL Injection
3 IT Service Delivery and Support #8. Apple A million Apple Unique Identifiers (UDIDs) were released by AntiSec The group claims to have 11 million more UDIDs Leveraged a Java vulnerability to access authentication related information To embarrass FBI, which was in the midst of investigating the hacktivist group Anonymous. # 7. Global Payments Theft of about 1.5 million credit cards Include Track 2 data can be used to clone credit cards names, addresses and social security numbers were apparently not breached
Impact merchants and consumers 4 IT Service Delivery and Support # 6. Ghostshell 1.6 million government and contract accounts were posted to Pastebin records by Team Ghostshell Involving aerospace, the defense industry, financial services and law enforcement Stolen data included names, email addresses, passwords, phone numbers and various forms of administrator account information. ProjectWhiteFox- intended to attract support for freedom of information on the Internet. # 5. LinkedIn 6.5 million Linkedin passwords (compromised of
unsalted SHA-1 hashes) Passwords were published in various places on the Web Team effort to crack the passwords 5 IT Service Delivery and Support 4. Nationwide Insurance, Allied Insurance Companies PII information breach - 1.1 million customers and applicants including names, Social Security numbers, driver's license numbers, date of birth and possibly marital status, gender, occupation and employment information No Medical information and credit card numbers High value of the information 3. South Carolina Approximately 3.8 million tax records and nearly 400,000 credit card numbers were stolen from the South Carolina Department of Revenue.
Over 2 million incidents of information theft were also nabbed through the same spearphishing exploit that stole employee usernames and passwords to gain access to the sensitive data. Improper password policies and failure to encrypt social security numbers were key enablers of the operation It's believed to be the largest data theft from a state government. 6 IT Service Delivery and Support #2. Zappos Personal details on 24 million people were hacked and stolen Information lncluding names, home addresses, email addresses, phone numbers, the last four digits of credit card numbers, and passwords The company stepped up with a highly proactive response that involved new passwords and increased numbers of call center folks to help victims navigate the situation.
1. The Biggest Breach Of 2012: The Government Sector Government sector, which, according to Boston-based security vendor Rapid7, has reported 268 individual data breaches over a period of roughly three years. In all, governments reportedly exposed more than 94 million records containing personally identifiable information. The data reveals that the number of breaches has continued to escalate each year since 2009. And, it's expected that the likely tally for 2012 will actually double the number from 2011. In addition to hacking incidents, the numbers include unintended disclosure, the loss or theft of portable devices and physical loss of devices. 7 Security Objectives Availability-The ongoing availability of systems addresses the processes, policies, and controls used to ensure authorized users have prompt access to information. This
objective protects against intentional or accidental attempts to deny legitimate users access to information or systems. Integrity of Data or Systems-System and data integrity relate to the processes, policies, and controls used to ensure information has not been altered in an unauthorized manner and that systems are free from unauthorized manipulation that will compromise accuracy, completeness, and reliability. * Underlying Models for IT Security, NIST, SP800-33, p. 2 8 Security Objectives (Cont.) Confidentiality of Data or Systems-Confidentiality covers the processes, policies, and controls employed to protect information of customers and the institution against unauthorized access or use. Accountability-Clear accountability involves the processes, policies, and
controls necessary to trace actions to their source. Accountability directly supports nonrepudiation, deterrence, intrusion prevention, security monitoring, recovery, and legal admissibility of records. Assurance-Assurance addresses the processes, policies, and controls used to develop confidence that technical and operational security measures work as intended. Assurance levels are part of the system design and include availability, integrity, confidentiality, and accountability. Assurance highlights the notion that secure systems provide the intended functionality while preventing undesired actions. 9 Information Security Processes Information Security Risk Assessment-A process to identify and assess threats, vulnerabilities, attacks, probabilities of occurrence, and outcomes. Information Security Strategy-A plan to mitigate risk that
integrates technology, policies, procedures, and training. The plan should be reviewed and approved by the board of directors. Security Controls Implementation-The acquisition and operation of technology, the specific assignment of duties and responsibilities to managers and staff, the deployment of risk-appropriate controls, and the assurance that management and staff understand their responsibilities and have the knowledge, skills, and motivation necessary to fulfill their duties. 10 Information Security Processes (Cont.) Security Monitoring-The use of various methodologies to gain assurance that risks are appropriately assessed and mitigated. These methodologies should verify that
significant controls are effective and performing as intended. Security Process Monitoring and Updating-The process of continuously gathering and analyzing information regarding new threats and vulnerabilities, actual attacks on the institution or others combined with the effectiveness of the existing security controls. This information is used to update the risk assessment, strategy, and controls. Monitoring and updating makes the process continuous instead of a onetime event. Security risk variables include threats, vulnerabilities, attack techniques, the expected frequency of attacks, financial institution operations and technology, and the financial institution's defensive posture. 11 All of these variables change constantly. Therefore, an institution's management of the
Governance Management Structure Information security is a significant business risk that demand engagement of the Board of Directors and senior business management. It is the responsibility of everyone who has the opportunity to control or report the institution's data. Information security should be supported throughout the institution, including the board of directors, senior management, information security officers, employees, auditors, service providers, and contractors. Each role has different responsibilities for information security and each individual should be accountable for his or her actions. Accountability requires clear lines of reporting, clear communication of expectations, and the delegation and judicious use of appropriate authority to bring about appropriate compliance with the institution's policies, standards, and procedures. FFIEC IT Examination
Handbook 12 Governance Responsibility and Accountability Board Executive Management Staff and Line-of-Business Managers Internal Auditors 13 Governance (Cont.) Board Central oversight and coordination,
Assignment of responsibility, Risk assessment and measurement, Monitoring and testing, Reporting, and Acceptable residual risk. 14 Governance (Cont.) Senior Management (security) Clearly support all aspects of the information security program; Implement the information security program as approved by the board of directors; Establish appropriate policies, procedures, and controls; Participate in assessing the effect of security issues on the financial institution and its business lines and
processes; Delineate clear lines of responsibility and accountability for information security risk management decisions; Define risk measurement definitions and criteria; Establish acceptable levels of information security 15 risks; and Governance (Cont.) Senior Management (Integrity) Ensure the security process is governed by organizational policies and practices that are consistently applied, Require that data with similar criticality and sensitivity
characteristics be protected consistently regardless of where in the organization it resides, Enforce compliance with the security program in a balanced and consistent manner across the organization, Coordinate information security with physical security, and Ensure an effective information security awareness program has been implemented Information Security Booklet throughout the organization. 16 Governance (Cont.) Staff & Line Managers Contribute to design and implementation of IT activities
Review and monitor security controls Define security requirements Internal Auditors Assess information control environments, including understanding, adoption and effectiveness Validate IS efforts and compare current practices to industry standards Recommend improvement 17 Information Security Risk Assessment Key Steps Gather Necessary Information Identification of Information and Information Systems
Analyze the Information Classify and Rank Sensitive Data, Systems, and Applications Assess Threats and Vulnerabilities Evaluate Control Effectiveness Assign Risk Ratings 18 Information Security Risk Assessment Key Risk Assessment Practices
Multidisciplinary and Knowledge Based Approach Systematic and Central Control Integrated Process Accountable Activities Documentation Enhanced Knowledge Regular Updates 19
Information Security Strategy Architecture Considerations Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (CobiT) - provides a broad and deep framework for controls. IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) - provides a list of recognized practices for IT service management. ISO 17799 - provides a library of possible controls that can be included in an architecture and guidance in control selection. BITS (Bank Information Technology Secretariat) and other industry publications for discrete controls, such as vendor management. 20 Information Security Strategy
IS Policies and Procedures Implementing through ordinary means, such as system administration procedures and acceptable-use policies; Enforcing policy through security tools and sanctions; Delineating the areas of responsibility for users, administrators, and managers; Communicating in a clear, understandable manner to all concerned; Obtaining employee certification that they have read and understood the policy; Providing flexibility to address changes in the environment; and Conducting annually a review and approval by the board of directors. 21
Information Security Strategy Technology Design Outsourced Security Services 22 Security Controls Implementation Access Control
Access Rights Administration Authentication Shared Secret Systems Token Systems Public Key Infrastructure Encryption
Biometrics Authenticator Reissuance Behavioral Authentication Device Authentication Mutual Authentication Authentication for Single Sign-On Protocols 23 Security Controls Implementation Examples of Common Authentication Weaknesses, Attacks, and Offsetting Controls: Dictionary and brute force Warehouse attacks, (compromise an entire
authentication mechanism) Social engineering, Client attacks (password, PKI key, etc), Replay attacks, Man-in-the-middle attacks, and Hijacking. 24 Security Controls Implementation Network Access Layers of Access Control Group network servers, applications, data, and users into security domains (e.g., untrusted external networks, external service providers, or various internal user systems); Establish appropriate access requirements within
and between each security domain; Implement appropriate technological controls to meet those access requirements consistently; and Monitor cross-domain access for security policy violations and anomalous activity. 25 Security Controls Implementation Network Access Network configuration considerations Identifying the various applications and systems accessed via the network, Identifying all access points to the network including various telecommunications channels (e.g., wireless, Ethernet, frame relay, dedicated lines, remote dial-up access, extranets, Internet),
Mapping the internal and external connectivity between various network segments, Defining minimum access requirements for network services (i.e., most often referenced as a network services access policy), and Determining the most appropriate network configuration to ensure adequate security and performance. 26 Security Controls Implementation Firewalls - (**NIST Special Publication 800-41, "Guidelines on Firewalls and Firewall Policy." is a collection of components (computers, routers, and software) that mediate access between different security domains.) Types of Firewalls
Packet Filter Firewalls Stateful Firewalls Application Firewalls 27 Security Controls Implementation Packet Filter Firewalls Weaknesses associated with packet filtering firewalls include the following: The system is unable to prevent attacks that exploit application-specific vulnerabilities and functions because the packet filter does not examine packet contents. Logging functionality is limited to the same information used to make access control decisions. Most do not support advanced user authentication
schemes. Firewalls are generally vulnerable to attacks and exploitation that take advantage of vulnerabilities in network protocols. The firewalls are easy to misconfigure, which allows 28 traffic to pass that should be blocked. Security Controls Implementation Stateful Firewall: is a firewall that keeps track of the state of network connections (such as TCP streams, UDP communication) traveling across it. The firewall is programmed to distinguish legitimate
packets for different types of connections. Only packets matching a known active connection will be allowed by the firewall; others will be rejected. 29 Security Controls implementation Application-Level Firewalls The primary disadvantages of application-level firewalls are as follows: The time required to read and interpret each packet slows network traffic. Traffic of certain types may have to be split off before the application-level firewall and passed through different access controls. Any particular firewall may provide only limited support for new network applications and protocols.
They also simply may allow traffic from those applications and protocols to go through the firewall. 30 Security Controls Implementation Firewall Policy
Firewall topology and architecture, Type of firewall(s) being utilized, Physical placement of the firewall components, Monitoring firewall traffic, Permissible traffic (generally based on the premise that all traffic not expressly allowed is denied, detailing which applications can traverse the firewall and under what exact circumstances such activities can take place), Firewall updating, Coordination with security monitoring and intrusion response mechanisms, Responsibility for monitoring and enforcing the firewall policy, Protocols and applications permitted, Regular auditing of a firewall's configuration and testing of the firewall's effectiveness, and31
Contingency planning. Security Controls Implementation Firewall Vulnerability Spoofing trusted IP addresses, Denial of service by overloading the firewall with excessive requests or malformed packets, Sniffing of data that is being transmitted outside the network, Hostile code embedded in legitimate HTTP, SMTP, or other traffic that meet all firewall rules, Attacks on unpatched vulnerabilities in the firewall hardware or software, Attacks through flaws in the firewall design providing relatively easy access to data or services residing on firewall or proxy servers, and Attacks against computers and communications used for remote
administration. 32 Security Controls Implementation Firewall Access Control Best Practices: Hardening the firewall by removing all unnecessary services and appropriately patching, enhancing, and maintaining all software on the firewall unit Restricting network mapping capabilities through the firewall, primarily by blocking inbound ICMP (Internet Control Messaging Protocol) traffic; Using a ruleset that disallows all inbound and outbound traffic that is not specifically allowed; Using NAT and split DNS to hide internal system names and addresses from external networks (split DNS uses two domain name servers, one to communicate
33 Security Controls Implementation Firewall Access Control Best Practices: Using proxy connections for outbound HTTP connections; Filtering malicious code; Backing up firewalls to internal media and not backing up the firewall to servers on protected networks; Logging activity, with daily administrator review Using security monitoring devices and practices to monitor actions on the firewall and to monitor communications allowed through the firewall Administering the firewall using encrypted communications and strong authentication, accessing the firewall only from secure devices, and monitoring all administrative access;
Limiting administrative access to few individuals; and Making changes only through well-administered change control procedures. 34 Security Controls Implementation Other Network Access Related Concerns: Malicious Code Filtering Outbound Filtering Network Intrusion Prevention Systems
Quarantine DNS Placement 35 Security Controls Implementation Wireless Issues Treating wireless networks as untrusted networks, allowing access through protective devices similar to those used to shield the internal network from the Internet environment; Using end-to-end encryption in addition to the encryption provided by the wireless connection; Using strong authentication and configuration controls at the access point and on all clients; Using an application server and dumb terminals; Shielding the area in which the wireless LAN operates to
protect against stray emissions and signal interference; and Monitoring and responding to unauthorized wireless access points and clients. 36 Security Controls Implementation Remote Access Disallow remote access by policy and practice unless a compelling business justification exists. Require management approval for remote access. Regularly review remote access approvals and rescind those that no longer have a compelling business justification. Appropriately configure remote access devices. Appropriately secure remote access devices
against malware (see "Malicious Code 37 Prevention"). Security Controls Implementation Remote Access Appropriately and in a timely manner patch, update, and maintain all software on remote access devices. Use encryption to protect communications between the access device and the institution and to protect sensitive data residing on the access device. Periodically audit the access device configurations and patch levels. Use VLANs, network segments, directories, and
38 other techniques to restrict remote access to Security Controls Implementation Remote Access Implement controls consistent with the sensitivity of remote use. For example, remote use to administer sensitive systems or databases may include the following controls: Restrict the use of the access device by policy and configuration; Require two-factor user authentication; Require authentication of the access device; Ascertain the trustworthiness of the access device before granting access;
Log and review all activities (e.g. keystrokes). 39 Security Controls Implementation Remote Access If remote access is through modems: Require an operator to leave the modems unplugged or disabled by default, to enable modems only for specific and authorized external requests, and disable the modem immediately when the requested purpose is completed. Configure modems not to answer inbound calls, if modems are for outbound use only. Use automated callback features so the modems only call one number (although this is subject to call forwarding schemes).
Install a modem bank where the outside number to the modems uses a different prefix than internal numbers 40 and does not respond to incoming calls Security Controls Implementation Remote Access Log remote access communications, analyze them in a timely manner, and follow up on anomalies. Centralize modem and Internet access to provide a consistent authentication process, and to subject the inbound and outbound network traffic to appropriate perimeter protections and network monitoring. Log and monitor the date, time, user, user location, duration, and purpose for all remote access. Require a two-factor authentication process for remote
access (e.g., PIN-based token card with a one-time random password generator, or token-based PKI). 41 Security Monitoring Architecture Issues Activity Monitoring 42 Security Monitoring Architecture Issues Network traffic policies that address the allowed communications between computers or groups of computers,
Security domains that implement the policies, Sensor placement to identify policy violations and anomalous traffic, The nature and extent of logging, Log storage and protection, and Ability to implement additional sensors on an ad hoc basis. 43 Security Monitoring Activity Monitoring Network Intrusion Detection Systems Honeypots Host Intrusion Detection Systems Log Transmission, Normalization, Storage, and Protection
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