Journal Entry 1/30/18 What do you feel like you need the most help with regarding your writing skills? Daily Agenda Thursday 1/30/18 Agenda:
Debrief UN 8 Stages of Genocide Key Terms: United Nations 8 Stages of Genocide Skills: United Nations
What is the United Nations (UN), give me some historical context? Membership of 193 nations Established in 1945 Headquarters in NYC Predecessor was the League of Nations Definition: A collective of nations designed to deal with short/long term world issues United Nations
What are the goals of the UN? Save future generations from war Reaffirm faith in human rights, champion equal rights for all humans Establish and maintain international law Promote social progress & better standards United Nations How does the UN help improve
peoples lives? Keep world peace Sustainable development What is the long list of goals listed? Gender equality Reduce poverty rates Control spread of serious disease United Nations
What are the limitations of the UN? Inability to resolve issues Personal agenda of countrys involved in UN Corruption/scandal
United Nations What types of world issues do you think the UN should help with? Please be specific Should the UN step in and help with conflict occurring within nations? Be prepared to Explain your reasoning
What is a genocide? Should the UN help if there is a genocide occurring? Genocide: Greek genos (), "race, people ), "race, people ), "race, people Latin cdere "to kill" Genocide is the
systematic destruction of all or part of a racial, ethnic, religious or national group. The term was created in 1944 to describe the Holocaust. UN on Genocide
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, December 9, 1948 Convention where the UN defined, and what genocide was and how they were going to deal with it, signed treaty between members of the UN by 1950 Major articles UN on Genocide UN on Genocide
Summary of the rest of the articles The aforementioned crimes of genocide are punishable by a tribunal in the state where the genocide occurred Any contracting party may call upon the competent organs of the UN to take such action under the charterfor the prevention and suppression of acts of genocide enumerated in article III (Article VIII) This is going to be important for Rwanda Genocides in the 20/21 Centuries 1904 Herero & Namaqua (German East Africa)
1914 Greek 1914 Assyrian 1915 Armenian Libyan 1923 1931 Holodomor (Russia or eastern Europe has multiple in the 1930s & 40s) 1931 Rape of Nanking 1941 Holocaust 1947 Partition of India 1965 Indonesia
1971 Bangladesh 1972 Burundian (Hutu/Tutsi) 1974 East Timorese (Indonesia) 1975 Cambodia 1980 Guatemala 1986 Kurdish (Iraq) 1992 Bosnia 1994 Rwanda 2003 Darfur (still continues) 2014 ISIS Central Africa (Yazidi, Shia,
Christian, still continues) 8 Stages of Genocide 1. Classification All cultures have categories to distinguish people into us and them by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality: German and Jew, Hutu and Tutsi. Bipolar societies that lack mixed categories, such as Rwanda and Burundi, are the most likely to have genocide. The main preventive measure at this early stage is to develop
universalistic institutions that transcend ethnic or racial divisions, that actively promote tolerance and understanding, and that promote classifications that transcend the divisions. The Catholic church could have played this role in Rwanda, had it not been riven by the same ethnic cleavages as Rwandan society. Promotion of a common language in countries like Tanzania has also promoted transcendent national identity. This search for common ground is vital to early prevention of genocide. 8 Stages of Genocide
2. Symbolization: We give names or other symbols to the classifications. We name people Jews or Gypsies, or distinguish them by colors or dress; and apply the symbols to members of groups. Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to the next stage, dehumanization. When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups: the yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule, the blue scarf for people from the Eastern Zone in Khmer Rouge Cambodia. To combat
symbolization, hate symbols can be legally forbidden (swastikas) as can hate speech. Group marking like gang clothing or tribal scarring can be outlawed, as well. The problem is that legal limitations will fail if unsupported by popular cultural enforcement. Though Hutu and Tutsi were forbidden words in Burundi until the 1980s, code-words replaced them. If widely supported, however, denial of symbolization can be powerful, as it was in Bulgaria, where the government refused to supply enough yellow badges and at least eighty percent of Jews did not wear them, depriving the yellow star of its significance as a Nazi symbol for Jews.
8 Stages of Genocide 3. Dehumanization: One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder. At this stage, hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to vilify the victim group. In combating this dehumanization, incitement to genocide should not be confused
with protected speech. Genocidal societies lack constitutional protection for countervailing speech, and should be treated differently than democracies. Local and international leaders should condemn the use of hate speech and make it culturally unacceptable. Leaders who incite genocide should be banned from international travel and have their foreign finances frozen. Hate radio stations should be shut down, and hate propaganda banned. Hate crimes and atrocities should be promptly punished. 8 Stages of Genocide
4. Organization: Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, often using militias to provide deniability of state responsibility (the Janjaweed in Darfur.) Sometimes organization is informal (Hindu mobs led by local RSS militants) or decentralized (terrorist groups.) Special army units or militias are often trained and armed. Plans are made for genocidal killings. To combat this stage, membership in these militias should be outlawed. Their leaders should be denied visas for foreign travel. The U.N. should impose arms embargoes on
governments and citizens of countries involved in genocidal massacres, and create commissions to investigate violations, as was done in post-genocide Rwanda. 8 Stages of Genocide 5. Polarization: Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating
and silencing the center. Moderates from the perpetrators own group are most able to stop genocide, so are the first to be arrested and killed. Prevention may mean security protection for moderate leaders or assistance to human rights groups. Assets of extremists may be seized, and visas for international travel denied to them. Coups dtat by extremists should be opposed by international sanctions. 8 Stages of Genocide 6. Preparation:
Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is expropriated. They are often segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved. At this stage, a Genocide Emergency must be declared. If the political will of the great powers, regional alliances, or the U.N. Security Council can be mobilized, armed international intervention should be prepared, or heavy assistance provided to the victim group to prepare for its self-defense. Otherwise, at least
humanitarian assistance should be organized by the U.N. and private relief groups for the inevitable tide of refugees to come. 8 Stages of Genocide 7. Extermination: begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called genocide. It is extermination to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human. When it is sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with militias to do the
killing. Sometimes the genocide results in revenge killings by groups against each other, creating the downward whirlpool-like cycle of bilateral genocide (as in Burundi). At this stage, only rapid and overwhelming armed intervention can stop genocide. Real safe areas or refugee escape corridors should be established with heavily armed international protection. (An unsafe safe area is worse than none at all.) The U.N. Standing High Readiness Brigade, EU Rapid Response Force, or regional forces -- should be authorized to act by the U.N. Security Council if the genocide is small. For larger interventions, a multilateral force authorized by the U.N. should intervene. If the U.N. is paralyzed, regional
alliances must act. It is time to recognize that the international responsibility to protect transcends the narrow interests of individual nation states. If strong nations will not provide troops to intervene directly, they should provide the airlift, equipment, and financial means necessary for regional states to intervene. 8. Denial 8 Stages of Genocide is the eighth stage that always follows a genocide. It is among the
surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims. They block investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force, when they flee into exile. There they remain with impunity, like Pol Pot or Idi Amin, unless they are captured and a tribunal is established to try them. The response to denial is punishment by an international tribunal or national courts. There the evidence can be heard, and the perpetrators punished. Tribunals like the Yugoslav or Rwanda
Tribunals (Gacaca Courts), or an international tribunal to try the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, or an International Criminal Court may not deter the worst genocidal killers. But with the political will to arrest and prosecute them, some may be brought to justice. Rwandan Genocide We are going to learn about the Rwandan Genocide You are going to do research on the context/background surrounding the genocide We are then going to watch Hotel Rwanda (more on this later)
Journal Entry 2/2/18 Read the 8 Stages of Genocide and answer the following question Which of the 8 Stages of Genocide did you find to be the most common in your Rwandan research? Rwanda Hutu: 85-90% Tutsi: 10-14%
Twa: 1-2% Tutsi were originally the Rwandans who had the most wealth (cattle). Considered to be taller, with longer noses (more European). Rwanda Colonized by the Germans after the Berlin Conference. Taken by the Belgians after WWI (1918) Hutus-majority (85-90%) Tutsis-minority (10-15%)
They speak the same language. There is no genetic difference. Rwanda Germans and Belgians used the Tutsi to rule over the Hutu. Before colonization, these were social labels, not racial labels. The Belgians labeled people as Tutsi or Hutu: Height, facial features, eye color, build If they couldnt tell: more than 10 cows makes you a
Tutsi. Gave the Tutsi power, education Hutu and Tutsi Although the Tutsi constituted only about ten percent of Rwanda's population and the Hutu nearly 90 percent, the Belgians gave the Tutsi all the leadership positions. This upset the Hutu. Rwanda
Hutu: 85-90% Tutsi: 10-14% Twa: 1-2% Colonized by Belgium Indirect Control Power given to the Tutsi Tutsi: a person rich in cattle -Becomes term for Upper Class 1935: Belgium issues identification cards Gains independence in 1962 Becomes Hutu led state
1990: Tutsi rebels launch Civil War against Hutu Majority Identity cards Rwanda: Hutu Children Tutsi children
Hutu or Tutsi? Neither. 1994 Hutu Majority in power. Tutsis are kept out of government. Hutu still angry about colonization. Tutsi feel left out. Tutsi form rebel groups
The Hutu president is going to make peace with the Tutsi. The UN is in Kigali to monitor the peace Rwanda: The Interahamwe is a militia, an unofficial Hutu army. Those who strike as one fist Those who work together Made up mostly of young men. Blame the Tutsis for all of the problems of Rwanda.
Organized (connections to the official military) Interhamwe Radio Rwanda Radio Rwanda Language as a weapon. Dehumanizing speech: Kill the cockroaches Cut the tall trees
Defend yourself from the Tutsi Beware of Tutsi plots Traitors Tutsi Rebels The Arusha Accords Peace between Hutu and Tutsi April, 1994
The Hutu Presidents plane is shot down. He is killed. This sparks an uprising Who shot the plane down? Still a mystery Journal Entry 2/6/18
What was the most alarming part of the film? Do you feel differently about the Rwandan genocide because you have a visual representation of the genocide, or do your feelings regarding the genocide remain the same? Hotel Rwanda Debrief What are some examples of the 8 Stages of Genocide that you witnessed in the film?
Classification Symbolization Dehumanization Organization Polarization Preparation Extermination Denial What do you think the UN did well? What could they have done better?
Hotel Rwanda - Aftermath Tatiana lost multiple family members in the genocide Around 1 million people were killed during the genocide Genocide officially lasted from April 7 July 15 1994 After the genocide Russesabagina went back to Rwanda for two more years After another two years in Rwanda Russesabagina moved (with his family) to Belgium and has taken permanent residence there
He is responsible for saving about 1,200 people Received multiple awards for his efforts during the genocide including the Medal of Freedom, the highest honor given to a civilian by the US gov. But he has received some criticism as well Hotel Rwanda Negative Feelings President of Rwanda Paul Kagame has stated Russesabagina is a Publicity hound, genocide revisionist, promoter of ethnic hate speech ... shamelessly banking on the genocide and endangering the survivors.
Based on what you know do you think it is true? Some of the complaints Gregoire states that the claims and the portrayal of him in the film is inaccurate President Kagame states that Russesabagina is spewing hate speech similar to the Hutus prior to the genocide Multiple complaints stating he is doing nothing to help the survivors of the genocide Russesabaginas response Gregoire He wanted to be fair to all people, but couldnt accept the actions of someone who was serving themselves from the cellar
Kagame - If I really wanted Tutsis killed, I could have done it at the time. Complaints - Im helping other humanitarian organizations with it, Rusesabagina replies. I cant go to Rwanda personally because of my own security. Theres a government campaign against me. Why would I show you all of this? The only question that really matters for use is this what can we (literally us in this class) do to avoid another tragedy like the Rwandan genocide? Gregoire actual name is Pasa
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