Key Study: Baddeley (1966b) Learning Objectives To describe the Baddeley (1966b) study. To evaluate the Baddeley (1966b) study using the GRAVE format. To answer exam questions on the Baddeley

(1966b) study. But First.... 1. What is the serial-position/primacy-recency effect? (Murdock, 1962) But First...

2. What is rehearsal? (in a memory sense!) But First... 3. What did Peterson-Peterson (1959) do to prevent rehearsal? What did they find? You are about to replicate part of Baddeleys

(1966b) study - Experiment 3 You will be shown a series of words. You need to remember the order of the words. Man

Cab Can Cad Cap

Mad Max Mat

Cat Map I am going to read out loud some number sequences. You need to listen to the number sequences.

After each sequence has been read out to you, you will be given the chance to write them down in the correct order. Now... You have 1 minute to recall the word list in the correct order.

These are the words that appeared: Cat Max Cab Mat Cap Cad

Map Can Man Mad Baddeley (1966b) did this 3 more times with the same list of words

Why might he have done that? Questions to Consider 1. Why did Baddeley show the words used when Ps were asked to recall them? 2. What was the relevance of having to

remember those number sequences? 3. The words used were all acoustically similar. There were 3 other conditions in this experiment. What could they have been? Which words belong to which condition? A.

B. C. D. Acoustically similar Acoustically dissimilar Semantically similar

Semantically dissimilar 1. Pit, few, cow, pen, sup, bar, day, hot, rig, bun 2. Good, huge, hot, safe, thin, deep, strong, foul, old, late

3. Great, big, large, huge, long, tall, fat, wide, high, broad 4. Cat, max, cap, can, man, map, mat, mad, cad, cab Questions to think about

1. What difference do you think each of these conditions will make to memory? 2. What controls do you think Baddeley will need to have used when choosing which words to include in his study? 3. Can you guess what the aim of this study was?

Aim To investigate the influence of acoustic and semantic word similarity on learning and recall in long-term memory. The results of this study will inform our understanding of how information is encoded in LTM, which in turn tests the

parameters of the Multi-Store Model of memory. Why would this study test the parameters of the MSM of memory? Surprise!!! You need to recall & write down the list of words, in the correct order again.

As a reminder, these are the words that were used: Map Cap Cat Cad Mat Can Max Cab Mad Man

How many did you get right, first time & second time? 1. Man 2. Cab 3. Can 4. Cad 5. Cap

6. Mad 7. Max 8. Mat 9. Cat 10. Map Calculate your number

of correct answers as a percentage First time round Second time round How do our results compare with Baddeleys (1966b)?

What conclusion(s) can you deduce from Baddeleys results? Note Check

Aim Procedure Results Conclusion

Choose a number between 100 and 200 (inclusively). Write this number on your Baddeley notes. Condensing Information Improves Memory You need to process the information

semantically, in order to decide which bits are the most important (should be included) & least important (should be discarded). Were in the business of remembering as much as we can Homework

1. Draw a pair of briefs. 2. Summarise the description for the Baddeley (1966b) study using the number you have written on your notes as your MAXIMUM word count 3. Use as many abbreviations, diagrams etc as you wish.

Evaluating Studies State How Why Exam Style Questions About This Study

What was the aim? How did Baddeley (1966b) conduct this study? What results did Baddeley (1966b) find?

What was the conclusion of Baddeleys (1966b) study? Describe Baddeleys (1966b) study investigating the influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on LTM. Describe the aim and procedure of Baddeleys (1966b) study Describe one strength of Baddeleys (1966b) study. Explain how Baddeleys (1966b) study might have low ecological validity.

Describe one way that Baddeley (1966b) could have improved his study. Etc.

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