Kingdoms and Crusades Chapter 19 Lesson 3 Review of England Review: Late 800s, Anglo-Saxons created the nation of Angleland, or England King Alfred of Wessex, or Alfred the Great,
ruled from 871-899 United England Halted the Vikings advances and attacks William the Conqueror A relative of Anglo-Saxon kings who lived in France The Duke of Normandy 1066: Became the King of England after defeating a
noble claiming the throne Had initial trouble earning the Anglo-Saxons trust Seized nobles lands and gave them to his Norman knights William the Conqueror (2) In order to decide how to tax the people, he created a census and counted every human and animal Recorded in the Doomsday Book
The Normans, including William, kept many Anglo-Saxon laws and practices Also brought many customs from mainland Europe Officials spoke French, the language of Normandy Built Norman-styled castles, cathedrals, and monasteries Taught new skills to artisans and weavers Anglo-Saxons and others could still speak their own language, which eventually
became known as English Norman and Anglo-Saxon culture soon merged to form a new English culture Henry II 1154-1189 Ruled England, most of Wales, and Ireland Feudal lord of France and Scotland Set up a central royal court with lawyers and judges
Created a body of common law, or law that was the same throughout the land Helped united England by replacing laws that differed from place to place Grand Juries A group of citizens that meets to decide whether people should be accused of a crime Trial Juries If the jury agreed the person should be accused, a trial jury then decided whether the person was
guilty or not The Magna Carta Henrys son John took control of England in 1199 Increased taxes and punished his enemies w/o trial 1215: Nobles forced John to sign the Magna Carta, or Great Charter Placed limits on the kings power King could only collect taxes if a group of nobles met as a Great Council and approved it Forced the king to uphold the rights of freemen, including the right to fair trials by jury Relied on the feudal idea that the king and his noble vassals both had
certain rights and duties Significance: strengthened the idea that all people, regardless of rank, have rights and that the power of the govt should be limited Edward I Late 1200s: King of England Strengthened power of his council Became known as the Parliament 2 groups in the Parliament
Upper house and lower house Growth of Parliament was an important step toward a representative government Monarchy in France Charlemagne died in 814. In 843, Charlemagnes only son passed away and
Charlemagnes old empire was divided into three parts (Treaty of Verdun) the western territory became known as the kingdom of France Hugh Capet 987: Hugh Capet became the king and created the Capetian
dynasty of French kings Controlled only the area of and around Paris, the capital French nobles had more power than most of the kings did Philip II 1180: Became king of France Changed the balance of
power Expanded French monarchys wealth and power Fought wars against England to gain feudal lands in western France Philip IV King of France 1302: wanted to raise taxes to pay for wars Gained approval for his plans through his council
Council consisted of representatives from three estates, or classes, of French society 1st estate: clergy/priests 2nd estate: nobles 3rd estate: townspeople and peasants The meeting became known as the Estates-General Never became as powerful as the English Parliament Philip IV Known as an evil king Very unpopular
Inflicted horrible damage, including starvation, on those he defeated in battle Enacted anti-Semitic laws against the Jews and expelled them in what is now called the Great Exile of 1306 Philips prime minister successfully assassinated Pope Benedict XI with poison Raided the Templars treasures and arrested many
of its leaders Byzantine Troubles 1000s: The Byzantine Empire came under attack 1071: Muslim Turks defeated the Byzantines and seized control of most of the Byzantine lands in Asia Minor Byzantine emperor asked Pope Urban II for military aid to save his Christian empire from Muslim invaders The Pope agreed--hoped that the result of
his help would be that the Byzantines would reunite with the Catholic Church and accept him as its religious leader European Crusaders 1095: the pope asked Europes nobles to begin a crusade, or holy war, against the Muslim Turks Urged to capture Jerusalem and free the Holy Land, where Jesus had lived, from the Muslims Motives for a
Religious War: God wills it! Control of the Holy Land Religious zeal Sought to escape troubles at home Sought adventure Hoped for the healing of the schism between
the Roman and Byzantine churches Why Conflict over Jerusalem? Significance to Jews:
Considered the Temple Mount Called their Holy city Where the original Temple once stood Significance to Christians: Jesus had been born in nearby Bethlehem Jesus had spent most of his life in Jerusalem Jesus was crucified on Calvary Hill, also in Jerusalem Also location of the last supper, his arrest and trial, and his ascension to heaven Significance to Muslims: Dome of the Rock - was built on the rock where Muhammad was said to have sat and prayed and it was so holy that no Muslim was allowed to tread on the rock or touch it when visiting the Dome.
Where Muhammad ascended to heaven A little about what happened Many Crusades over 200 years The First Crusade was the only one that came close to achieving its goals on the Christian side The Crusades had far-reaching political, economic, and social impacts Came to an end in 1291 by Muslims capturing the last Christian outpost in
the port city of Acre-it was a massacre-just like Jerusalem 200 years earlier by the Christians The 1 Crusade st Thousands of Europeans on horseback and on foot headed east 1099: Reached Jerusalem and stormed the city Conquered several regions, but were surrounded by the Muslims, making travel and
trade very dangerous Eventually, the Muslims retook Edessa, sparking the 2nd Crusade The 2 Crusade nd Muslims defeated the Europeans 1174: Muslims recaptured Jerusalem
Led by the famous general, Saladin (SA-luhDEEN) Triggered the 3rd Crusade The 3 Crusade and Beyond rd Europeans were defeated by the Muslims The Europeans organized several other Crusades (totaling 7 major crusades during the period) By the end of the century,
the Muslims had captured almost all of the land taken by the Crusaders Effects of the Crusades on Europe: A bitter legacy of religious hatred left Peoples of faith guilty of atrocities in the name of religion Quickened the pace of changes in Europe Brought W. Europeans into contact with the Byzantines and Muslims
Architecture: learned how to build domes and create mosaics W. Europeans began to demand Eastern goods Weakened Feudalism Kings built stronger central governments Changes in Europe: Economic Expansion Increased trade Large fleets were built
Encouraged growth of money-money was needed to get to the Holy Land Increased power for monarchs Some monarchs helped lead the Crusades-this greatly enhanced their power Byzantine Church resentment for the West (Rome) hardened Papal power remained dramatic A wider world view developed This view had been cut off since the fall of Rome Opened eyes to other people groups and their diversity
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