Knee & Thigh Chapter 7

Knee & Thigh Chapter 7

KNEE & THIGH CHAPTER 7 Objectives: UNDERSTAND: 1. Anatomy of the knee & thigh 2. Principles of rehabilitation to the knee & knee 3. Preventive/supportive techniques and devices IDENTIFY:

4. Assessment tests for injuries to the knee and thigh RECOGNIZE: 5. Steps in the evaluation format 6. Common injuries to the knee and thigh Anatomy The Knee

Largest joint in the body, but structurally very weak. Unstable bony structure: the femur (longest & strongest bone in the body) sits on top of the smaller tibia (main weight bearing bone of lower leg). Anatomy

Femur -longest and strongest Tibia -main weight bearing bone of lower leg Fibula -non-weight bearing bone of lower leg Patella -(knee cap) encased in powerful patellar tendon Ligaments Medial Collateral (MCL) -secure femur to tibia - connects to the medial meniscus -Reduce Valgus & varus movement (abduction & adduction of tibia and femur)

Lateral Collateral (LCL)-(not as strong) -does not attach to the lateral meniscus -Reduce Valgus & varus movement (abduction & adduction of tibia and femur) Anterior Cruciate (ACL)-form X control anterior & posterior movement of femur on the tibia. Posterior Cruciate (PCL) Other structures Cartilage: (rest on top of tibia, form a cushion for the femur

to rest on, and shock-absorption, joint stability, smooth gliding & rotating of the femur and tibia) Medial Meniscus (cartilage) Lateral Meniscus (cartilage) Bursa -closed, fluid-filled sacs, cushion against friction over bone, or where tendon moves over a bone. Synovial membrane -large sac that lines the inside of the knee joint, helps: tendons, ligaments, and bones.

Fat pads -soft tissue: weight bearing and absorbing impact Muscles Quadriceps: Anterior, extend (straighten) lower leg, form patellar tendon (attaches on front of tibia) 1. Rectus femoris 2. vastus medialis-patellar tracking 3. vastus lateralis 4. vastus medialis Muscles Hamstrings: posterior, flexes the knee,

controls the rotary movements of the tibia. 1. Semitendinosus 2. semimembranosus 3. biceps femoris Muscles & Tendons Vastus Medialis: extension of knee

Vastus Lateralis: extension of knee Vastus Intermedius: extension of knee Rectus Femoris: extension of knee, flexion of hip Gracilis: adduction of hip and flexion of knee Sartorius: flexion & rotation of hip & knee Semitendinosus: knee flexion & medial rotation Semimebranosus: Knee flexion & medial rotation Muscles & Tendons

Popliteus: flexion of knee & medial rotation Biceps Femoris: flexion of knee & lateral rotation Gastrocnemius: knee flexion Plantaris: knee flexion Assessment Tests Test for knee ligament stability: - abduction or valgus stress: medial joint stability -adduction or varus stress: lateral joint stability -anterior drawer: acl -posterior drawer: pcl -Lachmans: acl

Common Injuries Ligament sprains: 1st, 2nd, 3rd degrees. -Contusion: direct blow to knee joint -Torsion: feet are fixed and body/injured joint is twisted (most often menisci) -Shearing: force delivered to opposite side of joint Patellar Tendinitis: Inflammation above/below patella. (pain after exercise, swelling) Ice & rest Common Injuries

Chondromalacis Patellae: irritation and softening of the cartilage on the posterior aspect of the patella, causing unusual tracking of the patella as it moves. (causes: muscle weakness, imbalance, females: wider pelvic) Osgood-Schlatter: Adolescents due to rapid growth during growth spurts, swelling below one/both knees. (causes: inflammation of the tibial tubercle, where the patellar tendon attaches) Rest & maybe cast Muscular strains: PRICES

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