Heavy Launchers by Alain Souchier president Association Plante Mars France EMC11 Neuchtel, 1 Octobre 2011 Content Heavy launchers of the past World heavy and semi heavy launchers NASA heavy launcher Space X proposals Russian heavy and semi heavy launchers Chinese heavy and semi heavy launcher European capabilities Heavy launchers missions
Heavy launchers of the past Saturn 5 1967 1973 13 flights 130+15 t N1 1969 1972 4 flights 95 t Shuttle 1981 2011 135 flights 35 +70+20 t Energya 1987 1988 2 flights 88 t +
World heavy and semi heavy launchers LEO payload comparisons In green: projects or development SLS 100-150t Liberty 21t Delta 4H Chinese HLLV 100-150t Angara A5ECB 21-23t 24t Falcon 9 Atlas 5 Heavy 18t 53t
Rus-M 4-35t 23-50t Proton HII B 20t A6 16,5t Long March 3 5 12t 25-50t GSLV Mk2 Mk3 5t 10t 13t USA Europe Japan
Russia China India US NASA heavy launcher Configuration frozen summer 2011: 8.4 m diameter core (identical to ET) with 3 SSME/RS25, 5 segments boosters Payload with boosters and central core: 70t Payload with second stage (J2X) and 5 SSMEs: 130t Operations requested starting in 2017 (unmanned) and 2021 (manned) Devt costs: 12 B$ Docs. NASA US NASA heavy launcher The selected configuration remains close to the old Ares 5 J2X engine 130 t thrust (later versions)
130 t payload version Boosters with 5 segments (4 for the shuttle) RS25 = SSME shuttle engine in an expandable version Pousse 225 t vacuum thrust Specific impulse 453 s Docs. NASA Space X proposals Space X proposals Beginning of 2011, Space X has proposed to fly the Falcon 9 Heavy as soon as 2013. Falcon 9 Heavy lower composite is an assembly of 3 Falcon 9 first stages (27 engines). The central core engines as well as the boosters engines are fed from the booster tanks at lift off and during the mission
first part. When the boosters tanks are empty the boosters are shut off and jettisonned. The central core then operates on its own tanks which are still full at separation. This operating mode is called cross feeding . This concept has been known for a long time but has never been applied. It is probably the reason why the payload given by Space X has grown from 32 t mid 2010 (preceding chart) to 54 t beginning of 2011. Space X proposals Experience on large multiengines propulsion bays: - Soyouz: 5 turbopumps and 20 chambers on the first stage; very good reliability - N1 lunar launcher: 30 engine on the first stage; 4 failures on 4 launches - Ariane 4: 8 Viking engines on the first stage; very good reliability - Saturn 1 and 1 B: 8 H1 engines on the first stage; very good reliability but few flights Space X proposals After Falcon 9 Heavy: Space X foresees the development of 2 new engines: The 600 t Merlin 2 and the 70t LOX/LH2 Raptor. One Merlin 2 replaces the 9 Merlin 1 on the Falcon 9 and in a cluster is the basis for a heavy launcher family Falcon X, Falcon X Heavy and
Falcon XX. Space X future engines Raptor Merlin 2 LOX/RP GG cycle Merlin 2 Propellant LOX/RP Thrust (vac) [klbf] 1,700 Isp (vac) [sec] 322 T/W [lbf/lbm] 150 LOX/LH2 SC cycle
J-2X LOX/LH2 292 448 55 Angara family 2014 ? RD 190 LOX/kro staged combustion 196212 t thrust engine Angara family cryo upper stages Isayev KVD1 RD56M 7.4 t thrust H2/O2 staged combustion engine Rus M family
From 6 to 50 t in LEO Launch from Vostochny 2015 ? Upper stage powered by four 10 t thrust RD0146 LOX/LH2 engine First stage and boosters powered by the 150/170 t thrust NK33 LOX/kero engine (N1 lunar rocket) Chinese heavy and semi heavy launchers Heavy launcher Long March 5 family Long March 5 10 to 25 t LEO - 6 to 14t GTO 2015 ?
Diametrer 5 m 2 YF 75D LOX/LH2 Diameter 3,35 m 1 YF 75D LOX/LH2 Diameter5 m 2 YF 77 (50t) LOX/LH2 Diameter 3,35 m 2 YF 100 (120t) LOX/kero Diameteer 2,25 m 1 YF 100 (120t) LOX/kero and CZ5DY with 6 boosters (next chart) China Heavy version of the Long March 5 6 boosters LOX/kero each with 2 YF-100 120 thrust engines 5 m diameter LOX/LH2 central
core with 4 YF-77 50 thrust engines 50 t LEO payload The Long March 5 et the heavy launcher China Two different versions of the heavy launcher To the left with LOX/kero boosters (YF-650 engines), LOX/Kero first stage (4x YF-650) and cryo upper stage (2x YF-220) To the right solid propellants boosters , cryo first stage (5 x YF-220) and cryo second stage (1x YF-220) Heavy chinese launcher engines Ground thrust Vacuum thrust Ground specific impulse Vacuum specific
impulse Chamber pressure Mixture ratio Oxydiser flowrate Propellant flowrate Area ratio Heavy chinese launcher engines LOX/Kero 700 t engine: staged combustion cycle LOX/LH 200 t engine: gaz generator cycle Chine Chinese Moon programme: heavy launcher use European capabilities (1) LEO payload in tonnes
140 Ariane 5 growth potential for space exploration A5 ECB VULCAIN 2 3EPC 4 MPS1 120 100 80 A5 ECB VULCAIN 2 4 MPS1 Limit for human Mars missions A5 ECB VULCAIN 2
4 SRB (US) A5 H920 5 VULCAIN 2 2 MPS 4 SRB(US) 60 Limit for manned moon or NEO asteroids missions 40 20 A5 ECA VULCAIN 2 No launch pad modifications Launch pad modifs
Production facilities modifs Increasing modification s International cooperation European capabilities (2) Examples of heavy launchers derived from Ariane 5 For 541C and 543C: production synergy with the basic Ariane 5 European capabilities (3) Examples of heavy launchers derived from Ariane 5 Ariane 5SH
Till more than 100 t in LEO Lift off with 4SRB + 5 Vulcain EAP ignition at SRB shut off European capabilities (4) Example of US Europe cooperation SRB US Dsignation Central Core Boosters LEO payload A5L4p H620 4 EAP 80t A5L4Pp H620
2 EAP 2SRB 100t A5L6Pp H 620 2 EAP 4SRB 110t A5L+6Pp H745 2EAP 4SRB 130t A5L++6Pp H920 2EAP 4SRB 140t European capabilities (5) Budgetary capabilities R us
si e 1 2 75 0 00 Heavy launchers missions examples Heavy launches may be linked to semi heavy launches for example to launch the crew
Martian exploration 3 launches (Mars Direct) to 7 launches (NASA DRA 5) Lunar exploration 1 launch NEO asteroids exploration 1 to 2 launches Defense against NEO asteroids 1 to x launches New geostationary missions (antenna farms, Earth observation more secure than in SSO, solar power stations,) Space X proposals Questions around Falcon 9 Heavy - What are the budgetary sources for the launcher development? - A 5,2 m diameter fairing is far too small for 50 t payloads. Space X is now presenting versions with a 8 m diameter fairing. - Cross feeding is not so easy to develop (transition for the central core engines from one tank to an other)
- The 27 engine configuration enables an engine out capability if the monitoring system is very efficient in detecting anomalies before it is too late which may lead to a complicated monitoring system. - In some cases engines present catastrophic failures (fire, explosion) which propagate to the other engines or propulsion bay equipments which cannot be dealt with the engine out capability. This failure mode probability is no more neglectible in a 27 engines configuration. This failure rate may be evaluated at 1 or 2 on 1000 which means 3 to 6 % on a 27 engines configuration to which other failure modes have to be added The impressive Falcon 9 Heavy 27 engines propulsion bay Russian heavy and semi heavy launchers Angara family Russian heavy and semi heavy launchers Angara family
Angara Family Performance Data Descriptions Angara 1.2 (Small-lift) Lift-off mass,t 171 Payload mass (kg) Parking orbit ( H circ = 200 km, i = 63 ) 3.8 Geotransfer ( i = 25 ,
H p = 5500 km), Breeze M/KVSK (com. SC) - GSO ( H circ = 35,786 km, i = 0), Breeze M/KVTK (federal SC) - Angara 3 (Medium-lift) Angara 5 (Heavy-lift) 481 773 14.6 3.6 (w/KVSK) 2.4 (w/Breeze M) 2.0 (w/KVSK) 1.0 (w/Breeze M)
Angara 7 (Heavy-lift) 1133 24.5 7.5 (w/KVTK ) 5.4 (w/Breeze M) 4.6 (w/KVTK) 3.0 (w/Breeze M) 35.0 12.5 (w/KVTK-A7) 7.6 (w/KVTK-A7) Long March 5 - Engines CZ-5-540 :10 engines in the lower stack Version Boosters
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