Tone Assumption Counterargument Concede Refute Connotation/denotation
Propagandistic Polemical Satiric Arrangement The Classical Model of Arrangement Patterns of Development Narration Description
Process Analysis Exemplification Compare and Contrast Classification and Division Definition Cause and Effect Key Elements of Rhetoric Context Time and Place Purpose Goal writer wants to achieve Thesis (claim, assertion) Main idea Subject Specific Topic Speaker Who is it in relation to the subject and the audience
Rhetorical Triangle The interaction between the Speaker, Audience, Subject, determines the structure and language of the argument. Audience Speaker Subject Ethos
An appeal to character, to demonstrate that they are credible and trustworthy Emphasis on shared values Expertise, knowledge, experience, training, sincerity Pathos
Logos Reason clear rational ideas Means having a clear main idea, or thesis, with specific details, examples, facts, statistical data, or expert testimony Acknowledge a counterargument Concede the refute An appeal to emotion Strong connotative words choice
Use of powerful images Vivid concrete details, and figurative details Patterns of Development The Classical Model (Arrangement) Intro (exordium) Draws reader into text Narration (narratio) Bckgrnd/factual info to establish subject/problem Confirmation (Comfirmatio) The development or proof needed to make case Refutation (Refutatio) Bridge between confirmation and conclusion
Conclusion (Peroratio) Brings essay to satisfying close, last will be what audience will remember Patterns of Development Narration Telling a story or recounting a series of events Chronological (mostly) Concrete Details Point of View Dialogue Crafting a story that supports the thesis Advantage because everyone loves a story Patterns of Development
Description Emphasizes the senses by painting a picture of how something looks, sounds, smells, tastes, or feels. Clear and vivid description can make writing more persuasive Makes it easy for the reader to empathize with you, your subject, or you argument Patterns of Development Process Analysis Explains how something works, how to do something, or how something was
done The key is clarity Patterns of Development Exemplification Providing a series of examples facts, specific cases, or instances One extended example or a series of smaller examples Usually involves Induction (Specific examples leading to a general conclusion) Patterns of Development Comparison and Contrast
Juxtaposing two things to highlight the similarities and differences Purpose to discuss the subtle differences or similarities in the method, style, or purpose of two texts. Organized by subject-by-subject or point-by-point Patterns of Development Classification and Division To sort material or ideas into major categories Writers main task is to develop his or her own categories, to find a distinctive
way of breaking down a larger idea or concept into parts Patterns of Development Definition To ensure that writers and their audiences are speaking the same language, definition may lay the foundation to establish common ground or identifying area of conflict Patterns of Development Cause and Effect Analyzing the causes that lead to a
certain effect or, conversely, the effects that result from a cause is a powerful foundation for argument More Information For more information regarding the Patterns of Development please go to: Frickes Forum blogs.muskegonisd.org/frickewi/ english-101/
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