Laryngeal Anatomy and Physiology

Phonation and Laryngeal Anatomy and Physiology Nothing is ever said on the stage without a reason. There are no exceptions. Charles Waxberg

The original use of the larynx was to keep us alive through breakfast. Its main function is stop solids and liquids from entering the trachea and choking us to death. Its secondary functions are to bear down, phonation and speech. The larynx of humans and great apes in infancy is higher in the neck so that they can breathe and suckle at the same time. In humans it descends before the age of two.

What the Larynx is for To stop food/liquid from entering the lungs To Bear Down While Expelling Defecation Childbirth While Lifting

PHONATION What is phonation? Laryngeal generation of voice Composition of the Larynx Composed of cartilage: Cricoid Cartilage Greek Name meaning ring

like Thyroid Cartilage Greek Name meaning Sheild like A pair of Arytenoids Epiglottis Laryngeal Anatomy

1. Hyoid bone 2. Thyroid cartilage 3. Cricoid cartilage 4. Tracheal cartilages illus952.html Larynx Cricoid 1. Anterior arch

2. Posterior lamina 3. Articular facet

Thyroid Cartilage / ARYTENOIDS 1. Thyroid prominence 2. Cricothyroid ligament

3. Arytenoid cartilage 4. Corniculate cartilage 5. Vocal ligament 6. Vestibular fold 7. Cricoid cartilage 8. Articular facet for inferior cornu of thyroid cartilage

1. Epiglottis 2. Arytenoid cartilage

3. Corniculate cartilage 4. Aryepiglottic fold

The thyroid rests superiorly on the cricoid and attaches posterior-laterally at the cricoids inferior articulator facets. This attachment (the cricothyroid joint) hinges the cricoid and thyroid allowing their anterior sides to adduct, changing vocal fold length. Movement The arytenoid cartilages, two pyramid shaped cartilages rest on the cricoid

at the cricoarytenoid joints and move in two distinct ways: 1.) To pivot (rocking) the posterior ends of the arytenoids away from each other, adducting the anterior ends or the reverse so the anterior ends abduct, and 2.) Sliding the arytenoids on an anterior-posterior path. Since the vocal folds are attached to the anterior ends of these cartilages (at the vocal process) any movement in them will change the folds shape, tension and relationship to each other thereby affecting phonation. Composition of the Larynx (Cont) Composed of Muscle: Extrinsic Laryngeal Muscles Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles

Extrinsic Muscle TWO Groups of Extrinsic Muscles: Suprahyoids Attach to points above the Hyoid (Jaw, Skull and Tongue) when they contract they raise or elevate the Larynx eg Swallowing Infrahyoids Attach to points below the Hyoid (one connects to the thyroid, however the others connect to the sternum and the scapula) when they contract they lower or depress the Larynx Intrinsic Muscles

Adductors vocal folds are together Abductors vocal folds apart Tensors - Stiffen Relaxors - Relax Adductors Lateral Cricoarytenoids Interarytenoids Transverse Arytenoids

Oblique Arytenoids A d d u c t o

r s A d d u

c t o r s

Abductors Posterior Cricoarytenoids Vocal Folds Muscle External Thyroarytenoids inserts into the muscular process on the Arytenoids and the Thyroid notch (shorten and adduct)

Internal Thyroarytenoids inserts into the vocal process on the Arytenoids and the Thyroid Notch (shortens and stiffens), act antagonistically to the Cricothyroids Membrane

Membranes False Vocal Folds Ventricular folds Laryngeal Ventricle Conus Elasticus (interconnects the thyroid, cricoid and arytenoids cartilages) Lamina propria (mucosal cover of the vocalis muscle) can vibrate independently of the vocalis muscle Vocal Ligament the thread like collagenous fibers of the deep layer of the lamina propria

Relaxors and Tensors External Thyroarytenoid Relaxor, shortens and adducts Internal Thyroarytenoid Tensor, shortens and stiffens Cricothyroid Muscles Tensor, lengthens and stiffens Pitch is determined by Relaxors and Tensors Fundamental Frequency Phonation is made up of a fundamental frequency or Fo (the number of times the folds open and close per second-CPS) and harmonic multiples of the Fo (two times the Fo, three times, four times etc.) that fall in intensity

(volume) in an inverse relationship as the harmonics rise in frequency or as the pitch rises the volume falls. Fundamental Frequency 10 9 8 7



300 400 500 600 700

800 900 1000 Pitch Fundamental frequency (average: baby 500Hz, children 250400Hz men 125Hz women 200Hz) is primarily affected by applying more or less longitudinal tension to the VF using:

Cricothyroids Tension in the vocalis muscle OR Adjustments in vertical tension depressing or elevating the Larynx via suprahyiod and infrahyoid muscles Vocal Fold Tension, Elasticity and Movement

Thicker or thinner Shorter or longer Open or close

Intermediate positions Stiff or elastic Movement: Bronx Cheer or Raspberry the sound is that or air escaping in rapid bursts, not the sound of the lips moving Borden and Harris. Aerodynamic forces acting on the elastic body of the lips ADMET Aero Dynamic MyoElastic Theory

Glottal vibration is the result or refers to interaction between aero-dynamic forces and vocal fold muscular action. Sub-Glottal Pressure Bernoulli Effect set vocal folds into vibration due to the elasticity of the folds (elastic recoil the force which restores any elastic body back to its resting place)

Muscular Force Muscles act to bring the folds together so they can vibrate, and muscles regulate their thickness and tension to alter fundamental frequency. Folds are FULLY or PARTIALLY ADDUCTED for phonation Bernoulli Effect An increase in velocity results in a drop in the pressure exerted by the molecules of moving gas or liquid, the pressure drops

being perpendicular the direction of the flow Schematic showing the Bernoulli Effect. The arrows indicate movement of pressure. As the air moves through a narrowing, inside pressure drops and outside pressure increases pulling the sides inward. Glottal Cycle Vertical Phase Difference vocal folds

open at the bottom first. As top part opens bottom part closes. Wave like motion phonation.htm Chest (Modal Register)

Low fundamental frequency Vocalis muscle activity Folds are thick and short Low stiffness Falsetto Register

Longer and thinner folds Stiff folds Small amplitude of vibration

Incomplete closure of the folds Shutter like appearance Vibrate more like strings Vocal Onset How we bring the folds together:

Attack Breathy Vocal Fry Partial adduction Whispering or falsetto register (Note: Folds come together FULLY but without force for Modal register)

Pitch Lies in the stiffness of the folds resulting from lengthening and contraction of the thyroarytenoids, especially the vocalis portion

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