Last look at dead infant - המוסד לבטיחות ולגהות

Last look at dead infant - המוסד לבטיחות ולגהות

" 2004 1984 , " The Legacy of Bhopal: The Impact Over the Last 20 Years and Future Direction . " ". . "

( ) 20 . . : , . Prof. Mark Tweeddale " ( , ) ( ". )

, . The Legacy of Bhopal: The Impact Over Last 20 Years and Future Direction M. Sam Mannan Harry H West, Nir Keren M.K.O ( Texas A&M University ) Conclusions Bhopal Gas Tragedy was the worst industrial accident ever Caused thousands of fatalities and many more life long injuries with multigenerational mutations

Affected terribly process industry Contd image Government, judiciary, industry, public, media learned lessons from Bhopal All proactive New legislation, research, risk analysis, safety systems, ISD, PI, Responsible Care, etc

Contd Casualties decreased somewhat Public image unchanged More actions needed, and fast, to win public trust

AS/NZS 4804:2001 OHSMS DuPont CCPS Canadian PSM )Based on CCPS( OSHA CIMAH Reg. 1984 UK Offshore Safety Case 1992 Seveso Directorate Lord Cullen

ILO-OSH 2001 OHSAS 18001 )18001( " API 750 Responsible Care AS/NZS 4801:2001 OHSMS AS/NZS 4360:2004 EPSC SHE MAN.SYS. SS 506 OSH )Sing.( Poland PN-EN 18001 BP SMS Exxon Mobile OIMS

Lord Cullen I consider that operators should be required to set out formally the safety management system which they have instituted for their companies and to demonstrate that it is adequate for the purpose of ensuring that the design and operation of their installation and equipment are safe. The present regulations will be replaced with goalsetting regulations. Many existing regulations are unduly restrictive )impose solutions rather than objectives(. ISO 18001 A formal management system based on a documenting, bureaucratic tradition. There are strong financial interests from many stakeholders in the business of consulting for design of systems and for

certifying of systems. Therefore it might be that these systems are not necessarily designed primarily for the best benefit for the organizations applying them, but also for these other stakeholders. It is therefore time to play down the issue of management systems in the more formal sense and raise it in its role as a means of achieving excellence in the disciplines of S, H and E. Keith Cassidy : OSHAS18001 is about State of the art still. Dr. Hans Pasman Safety Management Systems : The Crown Piece of Loss Prevention. SMS should be Goal Setting and Non Prescriptive Dinesh Govind Sr. Loss Prev. Engineer QATAR 29.3.05 1. Suggest that company should have its own SMS, developed using various international guidelines.

) If there is meeting at your end, I would present a possible SMS structure for your organization. ( (1991 ). - 250( 1994)

1995 . " (" ) 1999 ( 8 ")

IPSG .2000 . ILO " 18001 " " " ILO 05.05.05 . ? .1 .2 .3

.ILO " .)?ISO 18001( 18001 ( ) ," ?? 2005 Piper Alpha 1988 )Lord Kullen( Seveso Philips Passadena )Mrs.Doll, OSHA Reg.(

Colombia )NASA( Texaco Refinery, Milford Haven 29.07.94 ? "

1 : ( .' ) " " , " " : , " , 29.7.54 F16 3.5.05 " CSB :

()National Program Near Miss g : ? . MKO Safety Management after Piper Alpha Brian Appleton Perhaps the most important lesson of all that can be drawn is that the sum and quality of our individual contributions to the Management of Safety determines whether the colleagues we work with will Live or Die. In Piper Alpha they died. LPG Disaster Feyzin, FRANCE 1966

BLEVE BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOUR EXPLOSION Mexico City Conclusions 1. Firefighters should make no attack if no persons or property are at risk. 2. Violent explosions can occur at any moment. There is no safe period. 3. A BLEVE can be expected at any time. TREVOR KLETZ 13.01.1992

There is no doubt that mounding is the safest form of storage as it eliminates the possibility of a BLEVE. It is not used as often as other forms of protection as the cost is believed to be higher though this may not be true if the costs of a reliable water cooling system and effective insulation are taken into account. " 1984 " 1986 " ( 1700 ")

1987 : . (" 32 '). 1992 ( ) ,"

. -1996 " . . 1997 " ( "). ( )1999 . . 25.08.99 " " " -". 1.10.99 : 8 ". 3.

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2000 . 27.01.2002 " : " ". " ( " ). 23.01.02 " : ." 2002 23.05.02 ( 99% 600 1") ( ) : 7.09.2003 ( 12 " !).

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o o o o o ( 1988. 1 , ) ( 1994. 2 ) . ( ? . - ). 2003 ' " 6 , . 2003 7 , " " 2005 2 " , " " o ? ? "" ?. , ,

18.5.95 o o o o . PSM , . . CCPS. .OSHA Reg - . Inherent Safety

5.9.95 " . Process Safety Management Du Pont Process Safety Management : A comprehensive , integrated set of management systems designed to help manage chemical risk and other types of process hazards with the primary goal of preventing process-related incidents and injuries. Years of PSM at DuPont 200 J. A. Klein , DuPont CCPS Atlanta 12.4.05 1803 E.I.DuPont We must seek to

understand the hazards we live with Management directives for a goal of zero injuries dates from 1915. 1966 Process hazard review program company wide. 1979 formalized PSM including 14 elements.

. ( ) . ( " ,, ) . " " " 1997 Milford Haven, Explosion and Fires

24.07.1994 Recommendations : Safety Management Systems include means of storing, retrieving and reviewing incident information from the history of similar plants. SMS should have a component that monitors their own effectiveness. The development of a training simulator capable of realistically reproducing the FCCU working conditions, in both normal and upset situations.

J.BRESLAND Chemical Safety Board Volatile Liquid Distilling Device May Be Cause of Refinery Blast The Algona Mon Mar 28 11:07:27 UTC+0200 2005 Volatile Liquid Distilling Device May Be Cause of Refinery BlastHouston Chronicle March 27, 2005 Mar. Blast rattles drywall plant The Brunswick News Mon Mar 28 20:40:33 UTC+0200 2005 By MELISSA DONLEY The Brunswick News An explosion at an industrial plant sent emergency crews from city and county fire departments rushing to Brunswick's south end Sunday evening. Oil refinery blast kills 14 CNN Thu Mar 24 06:39:03 UTC+0200 2005 TEXAS CITY, Texas (CNN) -- At least 14 people died and more than 70 others were injured in an explosion that ripped through a BP oil refinery in southeastern Texas on Wednesday, a company spokesman said.

Explosion closes Gore plant in Md Delaware Online Tue Mar 29 10:16:57 UTC+0200 2005 By ANGIE BASIOUNY and MURALI BALAJI / The News Journal 03/29/2005 An explosion Monday ripped through the W.L. Gore & Associates plant near Fair Hill, Md., causing heavy structural damage and forcing the evacuation of more than 150 company employees. 4 Die In Massive Explosion At Texas City Refinery MSNBC Local Thu Mar 24 02:41:45 UTC+0200 2005 TEXAS CITYTexas - A massive explosion and fire erupted at a Texas City refinery Wednesday afternoon, resulting in at least four deaths and dozens of injuries. 26.05.1999 " : , , .

. : '. 100 150 Fatalities Due to Incidents 500 1,000 Serious Injuries Due to Incidents 5,000 Injuries Due to Incidents 25,000 35,000 Incidents CCPS and DIERS Book and Software List ISBN 0-81690745-5 0736-6 0720-X 0703-X

0702-1 0684-X Sales Code G-50 G-49 G-42 G-41 G-40 G-39 199 OP 189 89 139

129 1998 1998 2000 1996 1996 1998 Title RELEASE: A Model to Predict Aerosol Rainout in Accidental Releases Loss Prevention papers on CD ROM G/L for Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Analysis, 2nd ed. Inherently Safer Chemical Processes, A Life Cycle Approach G/L for Use of Vapor Cloud Dispersion Models, 2nd ed. G/L for Design Solutions for Process Equipment Failures

109 49 OP 89 29 79 99 129 119 79 89 99 1997 1995 1995 1995

1996 1998 1996 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 G/L for Integrating Process Safety Management, Environment, Safety, Health and Quality Understanding Atmospheric Dispersion of Accidental Releases Expert Systems in Process Safety Concentration Fluctuations and Averaging Time in Vapor Clouds Contractor and Client Relations to Assure Process Safety G/L for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals G/L for Writing Effective Operating and Maintenance Procedures G/L for Technical Planning for On-site Emergencies

G/L for Safe Storage and Handling of Reactive Materials G/L for Safe Process Operations and Maintenance G/L for Chemical Transportation Risk Analysis G/L for Process Safety Documentation 0683-1 0681-5 0680-7 6793 0667-X 0659-9 0658-0 0653-X 0629-7 0627-0 0626-2 0625-4

G-38 G-37 G-36 G-35 G-34 G-33 G-32 G-31 G-30 G-29 G-28 G-27 129 89 79

139 49 129 79 OP 129 1996 1993 1997 1993 1995 1995 1992 1992 1992

G/L for Evaluating Process Plant Buildings for External Explosions and Fires G/L for Implementing Process Safety Management Systems G/L for Post Release Mitigation Technology in the Chemical Process Industry G/L for Engineering Design for Process Safety G/L for Process Safety Fundamentals for General Plant Operations Tools for Making Acute Risk Decisions with Chemical Process Safety Applications G/L for Auditing Process Safety Management Systems G/L for Investigating Chemical Process Incidents G/L for Hazard Evaluation Procedures )2nd Edition( with Worked Examples 0646-7 0590-8 0588-6 0565-7 0564-9 0557-6 0556-8

0555-X 0491-X G-26 G-25 G-24 G-23 G-22 G-21 G-20 G-19 G-18 18 Safety, Health and Loss Prevention in Chemical Processes: Student Problems

0473-1 G-17 69 Safety, Health and Loss Prevention in Chemical Processes: Instructor's Guide 0421-9 G-16 CCPS and DIERS Book and Software List 69 119 119 99 139 169 169

89 89 2005 2005 2004 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2002 199 2004

129 69 1795 109 95 139 89 134 99 89 129 79 129 59 49 2002

2000 2002 2000 1999 2001 2002 1999 1999 2003 1999 1998 1998 1999 1999 60

2000 Title Safe Use of Glassed Equipment )coming soon( Guidelines for Mechanical Integrity )coming soon( Guidelines for Safe Handling of Powders and Bulk Solids The Business Case for Process Safety - 10 pamphlets and CD Guidelines for Facility Siting and Layout Guidelines for Fire Protection in the Chemical, Petrochemical, and Petroleum industries Guidelines for Investigating Chemical Process Incidents, 2nd ed Essential Practices for Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards Guidelines for Managing the Security Vulnerabilities of Fixed Chemical Sites )Aug 02( CCPS Conference and Loss Prevention Symposium Proceedings on CD ROM, Second Edition Wind Flow and Vapor Cloud Dispersion in Industrial and Urban Sites Revalidating Process Hazard Analyses ProSmart Safety Management and Measurement Software

G/L for Process Safety in Outsourced Manufacturing Operations Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Processes Layer of Protection Analysis: Simplified Process Risk Assessment Deflagration and Detonation Flame Arrestors G/L for Consequence Analysis of Chemical Releases G/L for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems Understanding Explosions Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud Electrostatic Ignitions of Fire and Explosions G/L for Improving Plant Reliability through Data Collection and Analysis LEPC Guidebook Practical Compliance with the EPA Risk Management Program Evaluating Process Safety in the Chemical Industry: A Users Guide to Quantitative Risk Assessment ISBN Sales

0-8169- Code 0953-9 G-97 0952-0 G-96 0951-2 G-95 0914-8 G-86 0899-0 G-84 0898-0 G-83 0897-4 G-82 0896-6 G-81 0877-X G-79 0871-0 G-77 0863-X 0830-3 0813-3

0812-5 0800-1 0811-7 0791-9 0786-2 0780-3 0779-X 0778-1 9948-1 0751-X 0749-8 0748-X G-75 G-71 G-69 G-68

G-67 G-66 G-64 G-63 G-62 G-61 G-60 G-58 G-56 G-54 G-53 0746-3 G-51 AIChE Members and

CCPS Sponsors Receive 20% Off List Price Hazard Analysis, Risk Analysis, and Reliability PROCESS SAFETY TECHNOLOGY This fundamental work keeps process engineers up-to-date on the effective methodology, with almost 200 pages of worked examples depicting the techniques in actual applications. References for further reading, along with charts and diagrams that reflect the latest views and information, make this a fully integrated work. Highly recommended reading for anyone concerned with safety of

chemical processes and related industries. THE COST ENGINEER BESTSELLERS Guidelines for Analyzing & Managing the Security Vulnerabilities of Fixed Chemical Sites September 11, 2001 taught the chemical process industry that there is another potential cause of catastrophic chemical accidents terrorism. Recognizing this new challenge, CCPS devel- oped a method to analyze chemical security risks to help companies reduce their vulnerabilities or supply added protection for them. This volume describes a systematic process for identifying, analyzing, and managing a companys security vulnerabilities, including: CCPS Security Vulnerability Analysis Criteria, The CCPS SVA methodology, Integration of chemical facility security and SVA activities with EH&S programs, and

Overview of CCPS Security Survey Vulnerability Analysis Process and Workbook. Inherently Safer Chemical Processes: A Life Cycle Approach Inherently safer chemical processes have recently received a great deal of attention as a poten- tial route to eliminate the possibility of chemical accidents. Put simply, in the words of Trevor Kletz, what you dont have, you cant leak. However, implementation of inherently safer processes can pose numerous challenges. This definitive reference, written by some of the worlds expert practitioners of inherently safer design, describes a life cycle approach to apply inherently safer thinking during all stages of process design and operations. PROCESS SAFETY Hazard Analysis, Risk Analysis, and Reliability TECHNOLOGY

Guidelines for Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Analysis, Second Edition Includes CD-ROM for Windows 95, 98, NT, and 2000 with sample problems worked using Excel and Quattro Pro. CPQRA is used to identify incident scenarios and evaluate their risk by defining the probability of failure, the various consequences and the potential impact of those consequences. This tech- nique provides a means for evaluating acute hazards and alternative risk reduction strategies, and identifying areas for costeffective risk reduction. This popular bookthe only of its kind availablereflects the latest advances in this evolving methodology, as well as worked examples on an accompanying diskette. Contents include:

Chemical process quantitative risk analysis, Consequence analysis, Event probability and failure frequency analysis, Measurement, calculation, and presentation of risk estimates, Creation of CPQRA data base, and Ten appendices, including loss-of-containment causes in the chemical industry; a sample out- line for CPQRA reports; and data reduction techniques. Process Safety Beacon CCP CCP S CENTER FOR CHEMICAL PROCESS SAFETY

http: //www.aiche.org/ccps/safetybeacon.htm An AnAIChE AIChEIndustry Industry Technology TechnologyAlliance Alliance Storage Area Completely Destroyed Supporters Messages for Manufacturing Personnel May 2005 Heres What Happened A major fire destroyed this motor oil and automotive fluids blending,

storage and packaging facility one evening after all regular employees had left. Because the facility was not designed to contain runoff and had no on-site fire fighting capabilities, such as a sprinkler system or fire hydrants, the civic authorities had no option but to let it burn. The nearest source of fire fighting water was more than a mile away. This accident investigated by and picture provided by the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. Visit their site at http://www.csb.gov PSID Members see: Free SearchTank fire Sponsored by CCPS The facility was totally destroyed. One business nearby was also destroyed and many homes were damaged. Approximately 900,000 gallons/3.4 megaliters of liquid waste and 2,500 cubic yards/1,900 cubic

meters of contaminated soil and debris had to be removed for disposal. There were no injuries, but the company decided not to rebuild and 100 community jobs were lost. How Did This Happen ? Evidence of how the fire started was destroyed, but it is believed that a combustible liquid, perhaps on a rag, contacted a hot motor or light. After it started to burn, there were no protective systems in place to stop or control it and the fire water supply was too far away for civic responders to use quickly. Dikes surrounded the tank farm, but the walls were not liquid tight. As vessels failed, flaming liquid quickly spread involving other vessels. Because there was inadequate separation between the tank farm and warehouses, flames moved quickly from area to area. The facility did not have any on-site fire detection systems

and did not conform to any voluntary fire code standard. What You Can Do Be aware that combustible liquids are fire hazards just as flammables are. They may be harder to ignite, but once started they burn with spectacular results. Take care when handling combustible liquids. Be sure to use containers specifically designed to store or dispose of combustibles and their waste products, such as oily rags which can easily ignite due to a wicking effect. Dont just throw them away like trash or leave them in the work area. Inspect your work area for fire hazards and protection systems. Make sure that fire suppression and control procedures are in-place and available. Pay particular attention to passive protection systems and look for cracks or holes in dikes and walls around storage tanks. Know what to do in a fire emergency. Know how to report the

fire, how to use a fire extinguisher, how to shut down equipment quickly, and your escape route. Combustible Liquids + Heat = Fire and Eventual Job Loss AIChE 2005. All rights reserved. Reproduction for non-commercial, educational purposes is encouraged. However, reproduction for the purpose of resale by anyone other than CCPS is strictly prohibited. Contact us at [email protected] or 212-591-7319 The Beacon is usually available in Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Hebrew, Hindi, Portuguese, and Spanish Sponsored by CCPS Supporters 2005 Process Safety Beacon http: //www.aiche.org/ccps/safetybeacon.htm

, , . . . . . 3.4 1900 . 100. .

. . . . . . . . . . , . CCP CCP S CENTER FOR

CHEMICAL PROCESS SAFETY An AnAIChE AIChEIndustry Industry Technology TechnologyAlliance Alliance This accident investigated by and picture provided by the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. Visit their site at http://www.csb.gov PSID Members see: Free SearchTank fire

, . . " . . . . + = ... AIChE 2005. All rights reserved. Reproduction for non-commercial, educational purposes is encouraged. However, reproduction for the purpose of resale by anyone other than CCPS is strictly prohibited. Contact us at [email protected] or 212-591-7319 " :,,,,,,,, .

15 13 : ' CCPS 1895 .10 CCPS Board : 7 2004 .218 158 : CCPS 12 2004 CCPS Business : 6 Industry Vice Presidents 2003 .24 EPSC Board& Tech. Steering 16 1999 . 160 129 : EPSC 8 1999 " ( )ILO

* 31.3.2003 " . , . . : " / 1. ", '(. - ILO, " ,18001) " " " " " . "" 2. " , , . . : - " -" ,

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' " , " , " , ", ", , , " , ", , , , , , . ," . ," ., , , , , , , , , . , ", ( . . ?) + 100 " Sam Mannan, Denis Hendershot, Jan Windhorst, Keith Cassidi, Hans Passman, A. Jacobson, Koos Wisser, Hans Kohn, Lary Cschangery, Mark Tweeddale, Prof. Ching, Robert Taylor, Juoko Souka, Prof. Gupta,Scot Berger, G. Keeports,Walter Frank, Jim Currie, D. Moore, Dan Crowl, Tim Overton, John Bresland, I. Rozental, Ms. Carolyn Merritt,Robin Turney, Richard Gowland, Volker Pilz, Bernd Frohlich, Prof. Malcolm Preston

The Business Case For PROCESS SAFETY The business case for process safety We have seen process safety benefit our business in ways we had not anticipated. We need to share this message with others. Arnold Allemang Vice President - Operations The Dow Chemical Company WHAT SEPARATES THE TOP-TIER COMPANIES IN OUR INDUSTRY FROM THE REST?

One essential characteristic each displays is that they have adopted a rigorous philosophy regarding process safety. This summary of a recent industry-wide study identifies four ways that your business will benefit from implementing a robust process safety program. Process safety is an essential part of achieving manufacturing excellence and increasing. My colleagues and I on the CCPS advisory board initiated this project when we sensed a need for a convincing business case that supports a vigorous approach to process safety. The four benefits identified in the project's resulting study are very broad in scope. Their effects reach far beyond the realm of financial considerations. The combined benefits promote global manufacturing's long-term growth and success in several ways. Process safety is a fundamental tenet of every successful chemical processing

company's operating philosophy. I have seen it benefit our business in ways we had not anticipated. We need to share this message with others especially smaller chemical manufacturers and the companies that use and distribute our industry's products. Arnold Allemang Vice President - Operations The Dow Chemical Company What process SAFETY CAN DO FOR YOU Aside from being the obviously right thing to do from safety and environmental stewardship perspectives, unrelenting commitment to a strong process safety management system is fundamental to a sustainable business model. Undesirable incidents of any sort detract from the value of a business, but a process safety incident has a negative impact on all stakeholders... customers, shareholders, employees,

and the communities in which a plant operates. The bottom line is that outstanding process safety performance is a pathway to both financial success and your license to operate James B. Porter Vice President of Engineering and Operations DuPont Fatality/Catastrophe PSM Inspections FAT/CAT Incidents Trending Down!! PSM Appears to be Working 29 30 25

23 26 20 20 18 21 23 18 15 10

15 10 6 5 0 7 1 1992 1994 1996

1998 2000 2002 2004

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