Latent Learning EC Tolman, Rats and Mazes E.C. Tolman Cognitive Theory of Learning Learning as developing from bits of
knowledge and cognitions about the environment and how the organism relates to it. This was in contrast to the theories of Thorndike who thought of learning as a strict stimulus-response connection. Cognitive Maps A mental representation of the
layout of ones environment. Rats and Mazes Tolman conducted experiments with rats and mazes to examine the role that reinforcement plays in the way that rats
learn their way through complex mazes. These experiments eventually led to the theory of latent learning Latent Learning Latent learning which describes learning that occurs in the absence of an obvious
reward Tolman argued that humans engage in this type of learning everyday as we drive or walk the same route daily and learn the locations of various buildings and objects. Only when we need to find a building or object does learning become obvious
Intrinsic Motivation A desire to perform an behavior for its own sake Extrinsic Motivation Performing a behavior to receive promised
reward or avoid punishment. Cognitive Dissonance This is when a person is trying to reconcile a conflict between attitudes and actions. In trying to do so, they often change their
attitudes to support the actions others see. This is why people who like their jobs stay in them even if they are not pay a lot. Or why celebrities complain about being rich and famous. Biological Predispositions Biological constraints predispose organisms
to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. People can be taught a lot of behaviors but you cant teach them any behavior you desire Insight Learning
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. Instinctive Drift When animals reverted to their biologically predisposed pattern.
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