Learning Module 02 - University of Texas at Dallas

Learning Module 02 - University of Texas at Dallas

Learning Module 2 Vowels and Stress Marking SPAU 3343 Phonetics Slides by Sonya Mehta In this LM you will review: How to classify vowels using vowel quality. Which characteristics separate the central vowels. What diphthongs and offglides are.

Why stress use varies in GAE and how to mark stress in IPA. Vowels During vowel productions, the articulators do not come very close together, so the airstream is relatively unobstructed. Are classified along two dimensions: Fronting/Backing. (front/center/back) - How far forwards or back is the tongue?

Tongue Height. (high/mid/low) - How much is the tongue raised or lowered? TA Tip! Similar to the relationship between VPM and consonants, these two features of vowel quality identify specific vowels. Vowels = Play me! Know this chart! GAE Vowel Names /i/ little i // cap i /e/ E // epsilon

//ash // wedge // schwa // stressed er // r-colored schwa, unstressed er // ah, alpha // open o /o/ O // hook /u/ U Front Vowels: /i/ and // /i/ beat seen

naive // bit been fear TA Tip! Q: Why is fear is transcribed with //? A: Because its r-colored! Front Vowels: /e/, //, and // /e/ bait pane sleigh

// bet pen fair // bat pan laugh Back Vowels: //, //, and /o/ // bought not far //

bought naught for /o/ boat cone sewed TA Tip! Depending on dialect, // and // may be used in the same words. Listen carefully to transcribe the right one! Back Vowels: // and /u/ // book

put should /u/ boot ruin you Central Vowels and Stress In unstressed syllables, the vowel quality changes to reflect the centralized position of a tongue at rest. // is stressed. sun - /sn/

nut - /nt/ // is unstressed. enough - /nf/ suppose - /spoz/ Central Vowels: // and // // but lullaby under

// rebuttal lullaby amount Rhoticity (R-Coloring) The vowel quality of a vowel sound that is affected by a following//. There are two sounds where the entire vowel is rhotacized: // is unstressed. // is stressed. upper sir - /p/ super - /s/ church - /sup/

TA Tip! - // Vowels that are in front of //s are always lax vowels, because r-coloring centralizes the vowel. Central Vowels: // and // // bird murder worth // hummingbird murder

reference Diphthongs Vowel sounds that change in quality during a single syllable by moving quickly from one tongue position to another. There are only three in GAE: /a/, as in high or buy. /a/, //, as in how or loud. as in boy or noise. TA Tip! Two vowels next to each other do not

make a diphthong they need to be within the same syllable. Diphthongs Some vowels are partial offglides (vowels that are not fully realized). But they are not full diphthongs. You may recognize these from your text: /e/ /o/ /i/ /u/ = = = =

/e/ = /e/ /o/ = /o/ /ij/ = /i / /uw/ = /u/ Vowel Quality There are 4 characteristics used to describe vowel articulation: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Height of the tongue body (high, mid, or low). How far forwards or back the oral cavity is constricted (front, central, or back). Lip protusion (rounding). Rhoticity or r-coloring. The main two dimensions are referred to as vowel quality. Example 1 Vowel Quality The first vowel in goofy would be: /u/: 1. 2. 3. 4.

High. Back. Rounded. Non-rhotic. Example 2 Vowel Quality The second vowel in goofy would be: //: 1. 2. 3. 4. High. Front. Unrounded.

Non-rhotic. TA Tip! We produce /i/ as // in unstressed final syllables. Compare the eys in monkey and key - you can feel the difference! Variations in Stress In GAE, stress can be used to distinguish between a noun and a verb. For example, (an) insult vs. (to) insult. (a) pervert vs. (to) pervert. (an) overflow vs. (to) overflow.

Stress is also used for contrastive emphasis. I want a red pen, not a black one. TA Tip! For now, focus on marking stress. Well learn more about lexical stress when we start on sentence-level transcription. Stress Placement in IPA The symbol / / marks stress when placed before the syllable carrying the primary stress. Stress is always marked in words that have more than one syllable.

However, in a large multisyllabic word, there may be more than one stressed syllable. Stress Marking In this class, we will only mark the most stressed syllable in multisyllabic words. Example:imaginative i-ma-gi-na-tive Stress stress, but not as much as ma

So we mark stress like this: imaginative TA Tip! You dont have to mark stress in one syllable words, but dont forget to mark the multisyllabic ones! Exercise 02 1. Vowel Quality 2. GAE Vowels 3. Marking Stress Exercise 02 Describe in terms of vowel fronting and height. 1. Describe the vowels in credit.

2. Describe the vowels in leaving. Write the IPA symbol as your answer. 3. Which vowels are high back vowels? 4. Which vowel is in the word heard? 5. Which vowels are in the word felony? Click the speaker to listen to the

word. Do not play a word more than 3 times. Exercise 02 Place a stress mark ( ) before the syllable that has primary stress. 6. lovely 11. assistant 7. results

12. mistake 8. composure 13. elephant 9. natural 14.

initiation 10. marathon 15. pterodactyl

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