Learning What is Learning? The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by
experience or practice. When people learn anything, some part of their brain is physically changed to record what they have learned. Any kind of change in the way an organism behaves is learning.
How do we learn? Learn by association Our minds connect events that occur in a sequence How do we learn? Two types of associative learning:
Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Other types of learning: Cognitive learning Observational learning Classical Conditioning
Major People: Ivan Pavlov John Watson Pioneers of behaviorism The view that psychology Should be an objective science Studies behavior without reference to
mental processes Classical Conditioning A condition where one learns to links two or more stimuli to anticipate events Learning to make a reflex response
to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex. Pavlovs Experiments Pavlovs Experiments
Pavlovs Experiments Pavlovs Experiments Classical Conditioning Conditioning can occur
without an Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Classical Conditioning Conditioning can occur without an Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Classical Conditioning
Conditioning can occur without an Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning in The Office
Classical Conditioning Although classical conditioning happens quite easily, there are a few basic principles that researchers have discovered: The UR (unconditioned response) and CR (conditioned response) are essentially the
same salivation. The CS (conditioned stimulus) must precede the US (unconditioned stimulus) in order for conditioning to occur bell cant follow food. Classical Conditioning
Check for understanding: An experimenter sounds a tone just before delivering an air puff to your blinking eye. After several repetitions, you blink to the tone alone. NS = tone before procedure US = air puff
UR = blink to air puff CS = tone after procedure CR = blink to tone Classical Conditioning Lemon powder demonstration
Classical Conditioning Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery What happens if the CS occurs repeatedly without the US? The CR diminishes (extinction) However, if a period of time goes by and the CS is presented, the CR reappears
(usually weak). This is spontaneous recovery. Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Generalization
What happens if something similar to the CS is presented after the conditioning has taken place? The similar stimulus elicits a similar response. Toddlers taught to fear moving cars will also fear trucks & motorcycles.
Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning John B. Watson and the Little Albert experiment
Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher. The learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and
unpleasant consequences to responses. Operant Conditioning Major persons: Edward Thorndike B. F. Skinner
Law of effect Behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning Skinner Box Operant Conditioning Reinforcement: in operant
conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Types of Reinforcers Positive Reinforcement: the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus (a reward following a response).
Negative Reinforcement: the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus. Types of Reinforcers
The child earns good grades and receives a pleasurable consequence: a hug.
The noise outside a child's window is preventing the child from sleeping. The child removes the unpleasant
stimulus (the loud noise) by wearing headphones. Types of Reinforcers Primary Reinforcer: any reinforcer
that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch. Secondary Reinforcer: a taught reinforcer; such as praise, tokens, or gold stars. Great job!!!!!
Reinforcement Schedules It matters when, and how often the reinforcement is given. Animals must receive immediate reinforcement for the learning to occur.
Humans have the ability to respond to delayed reinforcers. Reinforcement Schedules Reinforcement schedules vary Reinforcing a response every time it occurs is called Continuous Reinforcement
Learning is rapid, but so is extinction Partial (intermittemt) Reinforcement is when the response is reinforced part of the time Learning is slower, but resistant to extinction
Reinforcement Schedules Punishment Reinforcement increases behavior, punishment does the opposite. A punisher is any consequence that decreases the frequency of the
behavior that precedes it. Just as there is positive and negative reinforcement, there is also positive and negative punishment. Punishment
Punishment Negatives of using punishment Punished behavior is suppressed not forgotten Punishment teaches discrimination Punishment can teach fear
Physical punishment may increase aggression 1. AThis situation uses positive reinforcement instead of the punishment used in situation B. 2. BGetting a reward in this situation is likely to decrease TV watching. 3. BGrounding that is not contingent on a behavior to remove it is less effective than
indefinite grounding. Indefinite grounding is punishment whereas grounding with contingencies is negative reinforcement. 4. BTime out or omission training is a form of punishment, and it is not as effective as positive reinforcement in decreasing such behaviors as whining. Situation B offers the child an alternative to whining rather than simply discouraging whining. 5. AThis situation describes negative reinforcement in which the negative stimulus(shocking) is removed when the desired behavior is performed. Situation B is less
likely to develop the desired behavior since there is no real connection established between the head bobbing and the consequence. 6. BThe positive reinforcement of lowered insurance premiums (especially if the teen is paying for these himself!) is more likely to encourage careful driving than receiving a speeding ticket. Although speeding may decrease in the time immediately after getting the ticket, it wont last as long as it would if it were tied to the reward of lowered premiums in the long run.
7. BThe child is more likely to behave in public if he or she is rewarded for being nice rather than being negatively reinforced for throwing tantrums. In essence, the child is being rewarded for misbehaving and the parent is being negatively reinforced to stop the misbehavior. If the parent wants the child to stop misbehaving, they should reward proper behavior.
Prefix too coarse-grained Contiguous prefixes from different locations Potential for aggregation is overstated Aggregate prefix unfit for traffic control Geographic Locality of IP Prefixes Mythili Vutukuru Joint work with Michael J. Freedman, Nick Feamster and Hari Balakrishnan Internet Measurement Conference...
Academics Academics Top grades Competitive Board Scores Try to be AOA, top tier of class, first and foremost many programs use a cut off to determine whom they interview Clinical rotations Try to obtain early exposure clinically with rotations in...
Eint = (nNA) Kave = nNA(3/2)kT Eint = (3/2) nRT Internal energy depends only on temperature Strictly true only for monatomic gasses Note that this is the total internal energy, not the change in internal energy Molar Specific Heats If...
Orgel (1927-2007) Diagram Orgela dla widm układów o jednym dozwolonym spinowo przejściu d-d (d. 1, d. 6, d. 4, d. 9) Diagram Orgela dla widm układów o trzech dozwolonych spinowo przejściach d-d (d. 2, d. 7, d. 3, d. 8)...
Both traits are partially expressed (blending) ... Supports Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance: individual genes are carried by specific chromosomes. New alleles created by mutation. May be helpful, harmful, lethal, or silent. May be dominant or recessive .
Luddites. Factories and businesses were designed to facilitate industrial processes, and workers were viewed as a component of production. If the people could be replaced by machines that operated cheaper and faster, the factory owners would do it.