Learning - Ms. Fahey

Learning - Ms. Fahey

Learning Continued Classical vs. Operant Conditioning With classical conditioning you can teach a dog to salivate, but you cannot teach it to sit up or roll over. Why? Salivation is an involuntary reflex, while sitting up and rolling over are far more complex responses that we think of as voluntary.

Operant Conditioning An operant is an observable behavior that an organism uses to operate in the environment. Operant Conditioning: A form of learning in which the probability of a response is changed by its consequencesthat is, by the stimuli that follows the response.

B.F. Skinner B.F. Skinner became famous for his ideas in behaviorism and his work with rats. Law of Effect: The idea that responses that produced desirable results would be learned, or stamped into the organism. B.F. Skinner and The Skinner

Box Reinforcement A reinforcer is a condition in which the presentation or removal of a stimulus, that occurs after a response (behavior), strengthens that response or makes it more likely to happen again in the future. Positive Reinforcement: A stimulus presented after a response that

increases the probability of that response happening again. Ex: Getting paid for good grades Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement: The removal of an unpleasant or averse stimulus that increases the probability of that response happening again. Ex: Taking Advil to get rid of a headache. Ex: Putting on a seatbelt to make the annoying seatbelt buzzer stop.

The word positive means add or apply; negative is used to mean subtract or remove. Punishment A punishment is an averse/disliked stimulus which occurs after a behavior, and decreases the probability it will occur again. Positive Punishment: An undesirable event that follows a behavior: getting spanked after telling a

lie. Punishment Negative Punishment: When a desirable event ends or is taken away after a behavior. Example: getting grounded from your cell phone after failing your progress report. Think of a time-out (taking away time from a fun activity with the hope that it will stop the unwanted behavior in the future.)

Reinforcement/Punishment Matrix The consequence provides something ($, a spanking) The consequence takes something away (removes headache, timeout) Positive Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement

Positive Punishment Negative Punishment The consequence makes the behavior more likely to happen in the future. The consequence makes the behavior

less likely to happen in the future. Reinforcement vs. Punishment Unlike reinforcement, punishment must be administered consistently. Intermittent punishment is far less effective than punishment delivered after every undesired behavior. In fact, not punishing every misbehavior can have the effect of rewarding the behavior.

It is important to remember that the learner, not the teacher, decides if something is reinforcing or punishing. Redi Whip vs. Easy Cheese Punishment vs. Negative Reinforcement Punishment and negative reinforcement are used to produce opposite effects on

behavior. Punishment is used to decrease a behavior or reduce its probability of reoccurring. Negative reinforcement always increases a behaviors probability of happening in the future (by taking away an unwanted stimuli). Remember, positive means adding something and negative means removing something.

Uses and Abuses of Punishment Punishment often produces an immediate change in behavior, which ironically reinforces the punisher. However, punishment rarely works in the long run for four reasons: The power of punishment to suppress behavior usually disappears when the threat of punishment is gone. 2. Punishment triggers escape or aggression.

3. Punishment makes the learner apprehensive: inhibits learning. 4. Punishment is often applied unequally. 1. Making Punishment Work To make punishment work: Punishment should be swift. Punishment should be certain-every time. Punishment should be limited in time and intensity. Punishment should clearly target the

behavior, not the person. Punishment should not give mixed messages. The most effective punishment is often omission training-negative punishment. Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement: A reinforcement schedule under which all correct responses are reinforced. This is a useful tactic early in the learning process. It also helps when shaping new behavior.

Shaping: A technique where new behavior is produced by reinforcing responses that are similar to the desired response. Dog training requires continuous reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement: A schedule of reinforcement

that rewards every correct response given. Example: A vending machine. What are other examples? Reinforcement Schedules Intermittent Reinforcement: A type of reinforcement schedule by which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced. Intermittent reinforcement is the most

effective way to maintain a desired behavior that has already been learned. Schedules of Intermittent Reinforcement Interval schedule: rewards subjects after a certain time interval. Ratio schedule: rewards subjects after a certain number of responses. There are 4 types of intermittent

reinforcement: Fixed Interval Schedule (FI) Variable Interval Schedule (VI) Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR) Variable Ratio Schedule (VR) Interval Schedules Fixed Interval Schedule (FI): A schedule that a rewards a learner only for the first correct response after some defined period of time. Example: B.F. Skinner put rats in a box with a lever connected

to a feeder. It only provided a reinforcement after 60 seconds. The rats quickly learned that it didnt matter how early or often it pushed the lever, it had to wait a set amount of time. As the set amount of time came to an end, the rats became more active in hitting the lever. Interval Schedules Variable Interval Schedule (VI): A reinforcement system that rewards a correct response after an unpredictable amount of time. Example: A pop-quiz

Ratio Schedules Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR): A reinforcement schedule that rewards a response only after a defined number of correct answers. Example: At Safeway, if you use your Club Card to buy 7 Starbucks coffees, you get the 8th one for free. Ratio Schedules Variable Ratio Schedule (VR):

A reinforcement schedule that rewards an unpredictable number of correct responses. Example: Buying lottery tickets Schedules of Reinforcement Number of responses Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules- Fixed Ratio 1000 Variable Ratio

Skinners laboratory pigeons produced these responses patterns to each of four reinforcement schedules Fixed Interval 750 For people, as for pigeons, research linked to number of responses (ratio) produces a higher response rate than

reinforcement linked to time elapsed (interval). Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 500 Variable Interval 250 Steady responding

0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (minutes) 60 70

80 Primary and Secondary reinforcement Primary reinforcement: something that is naturally reinforcing: food, warmth, water Secondary reinforcement: something you have learned is a reward because it is paired with a primary reinforcement in the long run: good grades. Cognition & Operant

Conditioning Evidence of cognitive processes during operant learning comes from rats during a maze exploration in which they navigate the maze without an obvious reward. Rats seem to develop cognitive maps, or mental representations, of the layout of the maze (environment). Latent Learning Such cognitive maps are based on latent learning, which becomes apparent only when an incentive is given (Tolman & Honzik, 1930).

Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake. Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments. Biological Predisposition

Marian Breland Bailey Photo: Bob Bailey Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. Breland and Breland (1961) showed that animals drift towards their biologically

predisposed instinctive behaviors. Skinners Legacy Skinner argued that behaviors were shaped by external influences instead of inner thoughts and feelings. Critics argued that Skinner dehumanized people by neglecting their free will. Falk/ Photo Researchers, Inc .

Applications of Operant Conditioning Skinner introduced the concept of teaching machines that shape learning in small steps and provide reinforcements for correct rewards. LWA-JDL/ Corbis In School Applications of Operant Conditioning Reinforcers affect productivity. Many

companies now allow employees to share profits and participate in company ownership. At work Applications of Operant Conditioning At Home In children, reinforcing good behavior increases the occurrence of these behaviors. Ignoring unwanted behavior decreases their occurrence.

Two Important Theories Token Economy: A therapeutic method based on operant conditioning that where individuals are rewarded with tokens, which act as a secondary reinforcer. The tokens can be redeemed for a variety of rewards. Premack Principle: The idea that a more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity. Operant and Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning Behavior is controlled by the stimuli that precede the response (by the CS and the UCS). Behavior is controlled by consequences (rewards, punishments) that follow the response. No reward or punishment is involved (although pleasant and averse

stimuli may be used). Often involves rewards (reinforcement) and punishments. Through conditioning, a new stimulus (CS) comes to produce the old (reflexive) behavior. Through conditioning, a new stimulus (reinforcer) produces a new behavior. Extinction is produced by withholding Extinction is produced by withholding

the UCS. reinforcement. Learner is passive (acts reflexively): Responses are involuntary. That is behavior is elicited by stimulation. Learner is active: Responses are voluntary. That is behavior is emitted by the organism. A Third Type of Learning Sometimes we have flashes of insight when dealing with a problem where we

have been experiencing trial and error. This type of learning is called cognitive learning, which is explained as changes in mental processes, rather than as changes in behavior alone. Wolfgang Kohler and Sultan Kohler believed that chimps could solve complex problems by combining simpler behaviors they had previously learned separately. Kohler taught Sultan the chimp how to

stack boxes to obtain bananas that were over his head and how to use a stick to obtain something that was out of his reach. He taught Sultan these skills in separate situations. Sultans Situation When Sultan was put in a situation where the bananas were still out of his reach after stacking the boxes, Sultan became frustrated. He threw the stick and kicked the wall before sitting down.

Suddenly, he jumped up and dragged the boxes and stick under the bananas. He then climbed up the boxes and whacked the fruit down with the stick. This suggested to Kohler that the animals were not mindlessly using conditioned behavior, but were learning by reorganizing their perceptions of problems. Sultan the Chimp

Cognitive Learning Sultan was not the only animal to demonstrate cognitive learning. When rats were put into a maze with multiple routes to the reinforcer, the rats would repeatedly attempt the shortest route. If their preferred route was blocked, they would chose the next shortest route to the reward. Cognition Map: A mental representation of a

place. Latent Learning In a similar study, rats were allowed to wander around a maze, without reinforcements, for several hours. It formerly was thought that reinforcements were essential for learning. However, the rats later were able to negotiate the maze for food more quickly than rats that had never seen the maze

before. Latent learning: Learning that occurs but is not apparent until the learner has an incentive to demonstrate it. Latent Learning Observational Learning You can think of observational learning as an extension of operant conditioning, in which we observe someone else getting rewarded but act as thought we

had also received the reward. Observational learning: Learning in which new responses are acquired after others behavior and the consequences of their behavior are observed. Learning by Observation Herb Terrace The monkey on the right imitates the monkey on the left in

touching the pictures in a certain order to obtain a reward. Herb Terrace Higher animals, especially humans, learn through observing and imitating others. Reprinted with permission from the American Association for the Advancement of Science,

Subiaul et al., Science 305: 407-410 (2004) 2004 AAAS. Mirror Neurons Neuroscientists discovered mirror neurons in the brains of animals and humans that are active during observational learning. Learning by observation begins early in life. This 14month-old child imitates the adult on TV in pulling a toy

apart. Meltzoff, A.N. (1998). Imitation of televised models by infants. Child Development, 59 1221-1229. Photos Courtesy of A.N. Meltzoff and M. Hanuk. Imitation Onset Observational Learning After observing adults seeming to enjoy punching, hitting and kicking an inflated doll called Bobo, the children later showed similar aggressive behavior toward the doll. Significantly, these children were more

aggressive than those in a control condition who did not witness the adults violence. Bandura's Bobo doll study (1961) indicated that individuals (children) learn through imitating others who receive rewards and punishments.

Courtesy of Albert Bandura, Stanford University Bandura's Experiments Bobo the Clown Video of the Bobo doll. A Modern Representation of BoBo Media and Violence Does violence on tv/movies/video games have an impact on the learning of children? Correlation evidence from over 50 studies

shows that observing violence is associated with violent behavior. In addition, experiment evidence shows that viewers of media violence show a reduction in emotional arousal and distress when they subsequently observe violent acts-a condition known as psychic numbing. Applications of Observational Learning Unfortunately,

Banduras studies show that antisocial models (family, neighborhood or TV) may have antisocial effects. Positive Observational Learning Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Fortunately, prosocial (positive, helpful) models may have prosocial effects.

Gentile et al., (2004) shows that children in elementary school who are exposed to violent television, videos, and video games express increased aggression. Ron Chapple/ Taxi/ Getty Images Television and Observational Learning

Modeling Violence Glassman/ The Image Works Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Research shows that viewing media violence leads to an increased expression of aggression. Children modeling after pro wrestlers

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