Learning Targets: I can compare the basic function and ...
Cells, cells, theyre made of organelles..try to pull a fast one, the cytoplasm gels youtube Cell Rap Learning Targets: I can compare the basic function and structure of different types of cells (plant, animal, fungal, and bacteria) GLE 4 I can compare functions of plant and animal cell structures (organelles) GLE 4 The Cell Cells were discovered in 1663 by Robert Hooke (published in 1665 Micrographia) Early studies of cells were conducted by
- Mathias Schleiden- plant cells (1838) - Theodor Schwann- animal cells (1839) - Rudolf Virchow- All cells come from other cells. (1855) Schleiden and Schwann proposed the Cell Theory. Principles of cell theory: 1. All living things are made of cells. 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function of all life. 3. Cells come only from other living cells. All cells today represent a continuous line of descent from the
first living cells. Review of Cell Theory Contributing scientists Anton von Leeuwenhoek: Invented the microscope and observed tiny living things in water Robert Hooke: Coined the term cell after observing that cork consisted of tiny chambers Francesco Redi: Proved that living things cannot be produced from non-living matter Louis Pasteur: Discovered that cells come only from other living cells
About Cells Cell size is limited. -As cell size increases, it takes longer for materials to diffuse (moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration) from the cell membrane to the interior of the cell. Surface area-to-volume ratio: as a cell increases in size, the volume increases 10x faster than the surface area: What does that mean?
Two Types of Cells Prokaryotes First cells to evolve No nucleus Hereditary info is contained within cytoplasm Ex: Archaea, Bacteria Eukaryotes Evolved from prokaryotes Have a membrane-bound nucleus Hereditary info is contained within the nucleus Ex: Animals, Protists, Fungi, Plants Prokaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic No Nucleus cells possess -genetic material in the nucleoid Prokaryotic cell walls -protect the cell and maintain cell shape -cytoplasm -plasma membrane -cell wall -ribosomes
-no membrane-bound organelles Flagella -present in some prokaryotic cells -used for locomotion -rotary motion propels the cell Bacterial cell walls -may be composed of peptidoglycan Archaean cell walls lack peptidoglycan.
What are some examples of prokaryotic cells? Eukaryotic Cells Eukarya -possess a membranebound nucleus -are more complex than prokaryotic cells -compartmentalize many cellular functions within organelles and the endomembrane system
-possess a cytoskeleton for support and to maintain cellular structure Nucleus -stores the genetic material of the cell in the form of multiple, linear chromosomes -surrounded by a nuclear envelope composed of 2 phospholipid bilayers
-in chromosomes DNA is organized with proteins to form chromatin the site of protein synthesis in the cell What do all cells have in common? All cells have certain structures: 1. genetic material in a nucleoid or nucleus 2. cytoplasm a gel-like/water fluid 3. plasma membrane a phospholipid bilayer Which cell is prokaryotic?
Which is eukaryotic? Bacteria Cell Animal Cell ANIMAL CELLS BACTERIA CELLS PLANT CELLS FUNGAL CELLS
Diagram of a Plant Cell Microbodies Diagram of an Animal Cell Bacteria Cells Three major phylum (groups) based on ROD-SHAPED shapes: SPIRAL-SHAPED BACTERIA
SPHERE-SHAPED BACTERIA (COCCI) Sometimes grow in chain or in clumps like a bunch of grapes. Examples Streptococcus (Strep throat) (BACILLI) Form chains.
Some types of these bacteria also have whip like structure called flagella to help them move around. Examples Escherichia coli (found in the intestines of mammals )
BACTERI (SPIRILLA) Can use their shape to propel themselves by twisting like a corkscrew. Examples: Borrelia burgdoferi (Lyme disease) Facts about Bacteria Cells
Some are harmful (1%) and most are beneficial (99%) In large intestine, bacteria manufacture vitamin K, an essential blood clotting factor Gives yogurt and sourdough bread its sour taste Bacteria in animals (cows, sheep, goats) help to digest plant cellulose Some plants, like soybean, peas, and alfalfa help to convert nitrogen to a more usable form for other plants to use Chromosomes composed of a single closed DNA circle.
Fungal Cells Fungi can be harmful or beneficial Medicine made from fungi cure diseases. People eat mushrooms. Yeast are used in making bread, wine and solvents.
Penicillin is a type of fungus. Fungus can cause athletes feet and ringworm Entering The Cell CELL WALL A stiff wall that surrounds the cell membrane, giving the cell a rigid boxlike shape (made of a
complex sugar, cellulose) Function: protection & support This structure is found in the plant, fungal, some protists, and bacteria cells. CELL MEMBRANE Forms the inside layer next to the cell wall Semi-permeable
porous barrier Function: controls what comes in and out of the cell Cell Wall Only found surrounding plant, fungal and bacterial cells Made of cellulose Is rigid, strong and stiff Provides support and protection for the cell
Cell Membrane Surrounds all cells In a plant cell, it lies beneath the cell wall In animal cells, it is the outer boundary (made of cholesterol/phospholipids) Provides cell with protection Control of movement of materials in/out of cell Maintains condition of cell Cytoplasm/Cytosol/
Cytoskeleton A gel-like watery fluid found throughout the entire cell wherein the organelles are found. It is constantly moving so the cell does not need to propel itself. Enzymes dissolved in cytosol convert one molecule to another Water is key for chemical reactions take place NUCLEUS
Identified in 1833 by Robert Brown surrounded by a nuclear envelope composed of 2 phospholipid bilayers Nucleolus- ribosomes are made -in chromosomes DNA is organized with proteins to form chromatin LYSOSOMES MOSTLY found in Animal Cells Cells cleanup crew large membrane bound vesicles formed by the Golgi bodies; contain digestive enzymes that break down
macromolecules Breaks down old cell parts and releases the substances so they can be used again. Destroys cells or foreign matter that the cell has engulfed by phagocytosis Greek for the process of devouring VACUOLES Storage area of the cell Stores water, salts, minerals, waste, or nutrients Flowers- store pigments for coloring Some animal cells have them & others
do not PEROXISOMES Small membrane-bound organelles that contain over 50 enzymes, which break down amino acids and fatty acids CENTRIOLES Only in animal cells- made of thin tubes called microtubules- during mitosis/meiosis they separate to the opposite sides and form spindle fibers
MITOCHONDRIA The powerhouses of the cell Produces and releases energy stored in food Glucose and oxygen are changed into a useable form of energy called adenosine triphosphate or ATP Contain their own DNA and are thought to represent bacteria-like organisms that evolved into eukaryotic cells
over 700 million years ago Chloroplasts Capture energy from the sunlight and use it to produce glucose for the cell Contain thylakoids-contain light absorbing pigments-chlorophyll and carotenoids Found only in the plant cell Photosynthesis Comparison between Mitochondria & Chloroplasts
Endomembrane System -a series of membranes throughout the cytoplasm -divides cell into compartments where different cellular functions occur 1. Endoplasmic reticulum 2. Golgi apparatus or bodies 3. lysosomes ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM Carry proteins (AKA ribosomes) and other materials from one part of the cell to another Rough ER manufactures and packages secreted
proteins Smooth ER fat synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism takes place Endomembrane System Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) -membranes that create a network of channels throughout the cytoplasm -attachment of ribosomes to the membrane gives a rough appearance -synthesis of proteins to be secreted, sent to lysosomes or plasma membrane
Endomembrane System Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) -relatively few ribosomes attached -functions: -synthesis of membrane lipids -calcium storage -detoxification of foreign substances RIBOSOMES the site of protein synthesis not membrane-bound organelles consists of ribosomal RNA and 50 different proteins can be attached to RER or can be found within the cells
cytoplasm GOLGI Apparatus or Bodies Discovered by Camillo Golgi in 1898 manufactures lysosomes receives proteins (large macromolecules) and other materials from the ER, packages them and distributes them to other parts of the cell. synthesis of cell wall components like FED Ex or UPS Lets Review The next 3 slides provides sketches
and the functions for each organelle you are required to know and understand. Use these slides to review with a partner use your Organelle Flipbooks. . Vocabulary Words and definitions Cell Wall Made of cellulose (plant only) gases can still pass through Rigid structure, protects cell membrane
PLANT and BACTERIA cells Cell Membrane Porous Controls what goes in and out (water and oxygen + molecules of food) Acts like a screen cytoplasm A gel-like fluid that protects organelles; fills the cell
Nucleus Strands of chromatin (genetic, DNA material) Inside is the NUCLEOLUS- manufactures ribosomes or proteins mitochondria The powerhouse or structure where energy is produced and released from food chloroplasts
PLANT structure where photosynthesis takes place Plants take in water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight and make glucose (its energy source) vacuoles Water-filled sacs, storage area (food, too) Plants have large vacuoles for water In plants, vacuoles act as lysosomes as well lysosomes ANIMALS only- some plant exceptions
The cells clean up crew Breaks down food particles and old cell parts Like a mini-digestive system Endoplasmic reticulum Membrane passageways that carry proteins from the nucleolus to the Golgi Bodies ribosomes protein synthesis
peroxisomes breaks down fatty acids and amino acids Golgi Bodies Flattened sacs and tubes Like FEDEX Receives proteins from ER, packages, and distributes them to other parts BACTERIA CELLS
A skin cell is 10x as large as a bacterium cell. NO nucleus, but genetic material is found inside the cytoplasm Contain ribosomes as well eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic cells Eukaryotes- true nucleus; organisms that have nuclei (animals and plants) Prokaryotes- no nucleus; bacteria
Information for this slideshow came from various sources Interactive Textbook http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCELL2.html http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/ribosome.html
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