Lecture #4 Chapter 9~ Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Date _________ Principles of Energy Harvest Catabolic pathway Fermentation Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + E (ATP + heat)
Redox reactions Oxidation-reduction OIL RIG (adding e- reduces + charge) Oxidation is e- loss; reduction is e- gain Reducing agent: edonor Oxidizing agent:eacceptor Oxidizing agent in respiration NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) Removes electrons from
food (series of reactions) NAD + is reduced to NADH Enzyme action: dehydrogenase Oxygen is the eventual eacceptor Electron transport chains
Electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) Shuttles electrons that release energy used to make ATP Sequence of reactions that prevents energy release in 1 explosive step Electron route: food---> NADH ---> electron transport chain ---> oxygen Cellular respiration Glycolysis: cytosol;
degrades glucose into pyruvate Krebs Cycle: mitochondrial matrix; pyruvate into carbon dioxide Electron Transport Chain: inner membrane of mitochondrion; electrons passed to oxygen Glycolysis
1 Glucose ---> 2 pyruvate molecules Energy investment phase: cell uses ATP to phosphorylate fuel Energy payoff phase: ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation and NAD+ is reduced to NADH by food oxidation Net energy yield per glucose
molecule: 2 ATP plus 2 NADH; no CO2 is released; occurs aerobically or anaerobically Glycolysis QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture. Krebs Cycle
If molecular oxygen is present. Each pyruvate is converted into acetyl CoA (begin w/ 2):CO2 is released; NAD+ ---> NADH; coenzyme A (from B vitamin), makes molecule very reactive From this point, each turn 2 C atoms
enter (pyruvate) and 2 exit (carbon dioxide) Oxaloacetate is regenerated (the cycle) For each pyruvate that enters: 3 NAD+ reduced to NADH; 1 FAD+ reduced to FADH2 (riboflavin, B vitamin); 1 ATP molecule Krebs Cycle QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor
are needed to see this picture. Electron transport chain Cytochromes carry electron carrier molecules (NADH & FADH2) down to oxygen Chemiosmosis: energy coupling mechanism
ATP synthase: produces ATP by using the H+ gradient (protonmotive force) pumped into the inner membrane space from the electron transport chain; this enzyme harnesses the flow of H+ back into the matrix to phosphorylate ADP to ATP (oxidative phosphorylation) Electron Transport QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Review: Cellular Respiration Glycolysis: 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) Krebs Cycle: 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) Electron transport & oxidative
phosphorylation: 2 NADH (glycolysis) = 6ATP 2 NADH (acetyl CoA) = 6ATP 6 NADH (Krebs) = 18 ATP 2 FADH2 (Krebs) = 4 ATP 38 TOTAL ATP/glucose Related metabolic processes Fermentation: alcohol~ pyruvate to ethanol lactic acid~ pyruvate
to lactate Facultative anaerobes (yeast/bacteria) Beta-oxidation lipid catabolism
Ineke Stoop. How comparative is comparative research (1998) ... This could mean an undercoverage of recent migrants. SK. The LFS sample is based on a Population Census conducted once each ten years (last time in 2011). There is the lack...
This hyperlink will resolve and open the Lotus Notes database in a browser window. To change this to open the database by launching the Notes Client: Edit the page. Select the web part that contains the hyperlink and place the...
Doha, QT. Windows Azure CDN. Enabled from the Windows Azure Platform portal. Integrated with Storage. ... Support for WS-Federation, WS-Trust, OpenID 2.0, Oauth 2.0. Familiar & Consistent .NET Programming Model. Use the existing Windows Identity Foundation SDK & Runtime.
Visual Magnocellular Deficit Theory (Eden,2016) In a study with high school students with dyslexia, Schneps (2013) found that reading on the palm-sized screen of an iPod Touch reduced inefficiencies in the ways students' eyes flitted across the page.
Mom would say something about jumping off bridges. Join in fun No control Event: I raised my hand when I had a question. disrespectful to teacher Getting frustrated My mom gets that little vein throbbing on her forehead, too. Mom...
Today's presentation provides additional explanation and background on issues and concerns raises by stakeholders during ISO's presentations to the Markets Committee on October 8, 2015 and December 9, 2015 ... the demand curve is still vertical at the upper end....
Let's eat, Grandma. Dear Mr. President, Comma Usage (Part 1) ... Let's sneak into the store find some food and get out of here Grandpa. Comma Usage (Part 2) A comma splice is similar to a run-on sentence, consisting of...
Identify key words in the answers. (underline) 3. Read the text. 4. Study each answer to see if it answers the question. (fill in the bubble) Hint: Select the correct answer that matches the question based on ideas in the...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!