Level I Sales Comparison Part A

Level I Sales Comparison Part A

Department of Local Government Finance The Sales Comparison Approach Part A 2020 Level I Tutorials Sales Comparison Approach The Sales Comparison Approach uses sales prices as evidence of the value of similar

properties. The price at which a particular property sells is the price determined by the interaction of supply and demand at the time of sale. 2 Sales Comparison Approach If supply or demand factors shift, prices generally rise or fall. The sales comparison approach is most suitable

when there are frequent sales of similar properties. 3 Sales Comparison Approach Because no two properties are exactly alike, methods must be used to adjust the prices of sold properties, or comparables. The known prices are adjusted by adding or

subtracting the amount which a given feature appears to add to, or subtract from, the price of the comparison property. 4 Sales Comparison Approach Adjustments may also need to be made for time and terms of sale. We will take a look at how the sales comparison approach is used and some of the factors that

are involved in using it. 5 Sales Comparison Approach Lets look at a few basic definitions: Demand: the desire and ability to purchase commodities and/or services. Specifically, it is the quantity of a particular commodity or service that buyers want to purchase at a certain price. Demand

is represented by buyers. Supply: the availability of commodities and/or services for purchase. Specifically, it is the quantity of a particular commodity or service that sellers offer for sale at a certain price. Supply is represented by sellers. 6 Sales Comparison Approach An inverse relationship exists between price

and quantity demanded. As the price goes down, the quantity demanded increases; as the price goes up, the quantity demanded decreases. 7 Sales Comparison Approach Factors that affect demand: The price of the commodity

Consumer income The price of related goods substituting one brand of paint for another at a lower price or buying a house in neighborhood A instead of in neighborhood B The price of complimentary goods paint brushes, nails, etc. 8

Sales Comparison Approach Consumer expectations of future price changes increases in interest rates, the price of winter gas or heating oil, automaker incentives. 9 Sales Comparison Approach Factors that affect supply:

The price of the commodity The availability of land, labor, management and capital Available technology Housing prices Size of the housing stock available Construction costs and methodologies 10 Sales Comparison Approach

When the quantity of goods offered for sale equals the amount of goods demanded for purchase, you have the market value. The marketplace is where the buyers and sellers meet to exchange property rights for other assets. 11 Sales Comparison Approach A buyers market is a market that exists when

oversupply and excess capacity permit buyers to drive price levels down. A sellers market is a market that exists when demand is so strong that supply levels fall and sellers escalate prices. 12 Sales Comparison Approach Markets and their products are interconnected (or linked) with other markets. Horizontal

linkages occur when substitute or complimentary products create relationships between related and unrelated markets. (For example, changes in interest rates affect demand for real estate.) 13 Sales Comparison Approach Horizontal market linkages provide the rationale for

The sales comparison approach to value Determining adjustments to the comparables Establishing how market participants purchase land 14 Sales Comparison Approach Lets look at value: Value is composed of five economic factors

that must be present to create it. They are: Utility the ability of a good to create and satisfy human desires and needs; usefulness Scarcity demand must exceed supply for a commodity to have value 15 Sales Comparison Approach Desire the wish to acquire an item to

satisfy human needs that goes beyond the essentials to supply life Purchasing power the ability to purchase goods for sale with cash or its equivalent Salability a commodity that for any reason cannot be sold has no value 16 Sales Comparison Approach A distinction must be made between the terms

real estate and real property. Real Estate is the physical land and the appurtenances affixed to the land. It is the tangible part of real property. 17 Sales Comparison Approach Real Property includes all the interests, rights and benefits included in owning the physical

real estate. We can give up some of the rights and retain others, such as selling mineral rights or retaining a life estate. 18 Sales Comparison Approach Market value is defined as by the IAAO in Mass Appraisal of Real Property as: The most probable price (in terms of money) which a

property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently and knowledgeably, and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. 19 Sales Comparison Approach Implications of the definition: Buyer and seller are typically motivated by

self interest and personal gain Both parties are well informed or advised and act in what they consider to be their best interests A reasonable time is allowed for exposure on the open market 20 Sales Comparison Approach Payment is made in terms of cash or in terms

of financial arrangements comparable to cash The price is unaffected by special financing or concessions 21 Sales Comparison Approach The steps required in the sales comparison approach: 1. Definition of the appraisal problem

2. Data collection and verification 3. Analysis of market data to develop units of comparison and select attributes for adjustment 4. Development of reasonable adjustments 22 Sales Comparison Approach 5. Application of the adjustments to the comparable sales

6. Analysis of adjusted prices to estimate value of subject property The formula for the sales comparison approach is: SPC +/- Adj. = V 23 Sales Comparison Approach The sales comparison approach estimates the market value of a subject property by adjusting

the sales prices of comparable properties for differences between the comparables and the subject. 24 Sales Comparison Approach Comparability is a measure of similarity between a sales and a subject. Sale property and subject property should be

similar with respect to date of sale, economic conditions, physical attributes and competitiveness in the same market. 25 Sales Comparison Approach Selecting the Comparables: Three to five is usually adequate, but a larger number improves confidence in the final estimate, increases the awareness of patterns

of value and stabilizes assessments over time. Units of comparison may be the property as a whole or some smaller measure of the size of the property. 26 Sales Comparison Approach Common units of comparison are square feet of gross building area; square feet of net

rentable area; front footage; number of rooms or units; and the gross rent multiplier. 27 Sales Comparison Approach Attributes are such things as age, size, number of bathrooms, quality of construction, design, land area, and location. The sale price is a function of how buyers and

sellers perceive the utility of important property attributes. 28 Sales Comparison Approach Is the attribute quantitative or qualitative? Qualitative attributes usually represent demand because they measure utility, and are usually adjusted with percentages. They are based on discrete, predefined categories.

29 Sales Comparison Approach Quantitative attributes that measure the range of housing services available usually represent supply, but they can represent demand as well. They are usually adjusted with dollar amounts, and are based on measuring or counting.

30 Sales Comparison Approach Lets look at some attributes and whether they are quantitative or qualitative: Building size quantitative Air conditioning qualitative Condition qualitative Bathrooms quantitative Year built - quantitative

31 Sales Comparison Approach How do the relationships between the attributes contribute to value? How do they relate to one another? Are the adjustments added together to form a total adjustment, or are they to be multiplied, or some combination? How do changes in quality and size relate to

changes in value? Does a second bathroom make the same contribution to value as the 32 Sales Comparison Approach Once you have selected your comparables and your attributes and determined the relationship of your attributes and their contribution to value, you are ready to determine the adjustment amounts (coefficients).

33 Sales Comparison Approach Making proper adjustments to value is the most important step in order to arrive at credible value indications for the subject property. There are five steps in the adjustment process. 34

Sales Comparison Approach Step 1 Identify all elements of comparison affecting the market value of the subject property. Step 2 Compare the amenities of each comparable with those of the subject, quantifying the difference between the comps and the subject property. 35

Sales Comparison Approach Step 3 Apply the appropriate adjustments for each difference to the unit of comparison or the total sale price of the comps and develop a net adjustment for each comp. Step 4 Bracket the adjusted values of the comps by identifying those that are superior, similar or inferior to the subject. 36

Sales Comparison Approach Step 5 Reconcile the indications of value into a final estimate of the subject. Sales with inferior amenities are adjusted upward to the subject. Sales with superior amenities are adjusted downward to the subject. 37

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