Literary Devices and Poetic Forms Understanding and Appreciating Poetry The question is not what you look at, but what you see. - Henry David
Thoreau Imagery The use of figurative language to represent actions, objects, and ideas. Think of the image of the river in Carry. The image represents how death is inescapable for anyone or
anything, including a powerful predator. Rhyme Scheme The rhyme pattern of a poem, determined by the last word of each line. - Perfect rhyme scheme words rhyme exactly (bell and tell) - Slant rhyme (imperfect, half, lazy) words are close to
rhyming but not exactly - Hat and cut (end in the same letter) - Hat and bad (same vowel sound) Rhyme Scheme Example Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall (a) Humpty Dumpty had a great fall (a) All the kings horses and all the Kings men, (b)
Couldnt put Humpty together again. (b) Refrain A refrain is a stanza or line in a poem that repeats at different intervals during the poem. A refrain serves a similar function as the chorus in a song. Refrain cont Think of the line, Nevermore in Edgar Allen Poes The Raven
Enjambment French for to put legs across or step over No punctuation mark at the end of the line Running on of a thought from one line to another Quickens the pacing and rhythm
April is the cruelest month, breeding enjambed Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing enjambed Memory and desire, stirring enjambed Dull roots with spring rain. Winter kept us warm, covering enjambed Earth in forgetful snow, feeding enjambed A little life with dried tubers.
The Waste Land by T.S. Eliot Analogy A comparison in which an idea or a thing is compared to another thing that is quite different from it. Her voice was cotton candy. The classroom was a furnace. Similes and Metaphors are TOOLS of analogies.
Metaphors Comparison between two things that are not alike and replaces the word with another word. My teacher is a lamb. You are my sunshine. Similes
Comparison between two things that are not alike and replaces the word with another word AND uses the word like or as. My teacher is like a lamb. You are as bright as sunshine.
Extended Metaphor A comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph or lines in a poem. Often comprised of more than one sentences and sometimes consists of a full paragraph. In Prose: Bobby Holloway says my imagination is a three-hundred-ring circus. Currently I was in ring two hundred and ninety-nine, with elephants dancing and clowns cart wheeling and tigers leaping through rings of fire. The time had come to step back, leave the main tent, go buy some popcorn and a Coke, bliss out, cool down. (Dean Koontz, Seize the Night. Bantam, 1999)
In Hip-Hop: But if you was LeBron James then Id be Dwayne Wade We both graduated at the same time from the same grade He was at the head of the class, on TV with celebrity acts, But that champion ring was one thing you never could grasp, I was slightly rated lower had to fight to gain exposure and that mightve made me slower but now I have taken over And Im down in Miamis Heat, living my boyhood dreams And for you to do what Ive done, youd have to join MY team!
-Iron Solomon (LeBron James to Dwayne Wade) Alliteration An alliteration is the repetition of the initial consonant sound in neighboring words. Examples: Dirty Dishes Delicate Daisy Sweet Surrender
Gentle Gaze Symbol Something that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention. The conch in Lord of the Flies was symbolic of
civilization. The red octagon is a symbol for stop! Assonance Matching vowel sounds in neighboring words. AEIOU
Think Vowels! Assonance Example Sundays too my father got up early And put his clothes on in the blueback cold Then with cracked hands that ached sounds oh sound
a and ay From labor in the weekday weather made Banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him. sound From Robert Haydens Those Winter Sundays aynk Consonance
The repetition of consonants at the end of words. For example: blank and think Thick and block Pitter Patter Pitter Patter Can you think of an example? ________ and ________ Repetition When a line or phrase is repeated or used several times for poetic emphasis or to stress an idea or concept.
Repetition cont Think of Tracy Chapmans song Fast Car and the line, be someone, be someone, be someone. She repeats this three times. The repetition helps stress the strength of her desire to rise from poverty. She uses
repetition for poetic effect. Meter The measured arrangement of words in poetry that creates its rhythm. Because/ I could/ not stop/ for death/ He kind/ly stopped /for me.
Notice how language has a distinct rhythm determined by syllables and sound. Stanza A stanza is the grouping of lines in a poem. Stanza Example Because I could not stop for death
He kindly stopped for me The carriage held but just ourselves And immortality (Stanza 1) We slowly droveHe knew no haste And I had put away My labor and my leisure too, For His Civility-- (Stanza 2) Is there just one way to write a poem?
NO! Poetic Forms Narrative Verse Lyric Verse Many different types of poetic forms. We will focus on six.
Limerick Haiku Free Verse The Sonnet (when we read Shakespeare) Lyric Verse Expresses feelings
like love, sadness, joy, and grief. Usually shorter and easier to follow than narrative verse. Most songs on the radio are lyric verse A Red, Red Rose by Robert Burns O, my luve is like a red, red rose,
Thats newly sprung in June, O, my luve is like the melodie, Thats sweetly playd in tune Cont Free Verse Free from limitations of meter or rhythm Does not rhyme with
fixed forms or follow a rhyme scheme Based on normal pauses and natural rhythmical phrases Bring me all of your dreams, you dreamers, Bring me all of your heart melodies that I may wrap them
in a blue cloud-cloth away from the too-rough fingers of the world. - Langston Hughes Narrativ e Verse Early poems that were usually read aloud.
They are composed in a way that tells a story. They are often heroic Paul Reveres Ride by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Listen, my children, and you shall hear Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere, On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-Five; Hardly a man is now alive
Who remembers the famous day and year, He said to his friend, If the British march By land or sea from the town tonight, Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry arch A noiseless patient spider, I markd where on a little promontory it stood isolated, Markd how to explore the vacant vast surrounding, It launchd forth filament, filament, filament, out of itself, Ever unreeling them, ever tirelessly speeding them. And you O my soul where you stand,
Surrounded, detached, in measureless oceans of space,. Till the bridge you will need be formd, till the ductile anchor hold, Till the gossamer thread you fling catch somewhere, O my soul. - A Noiseless Patient Spider by Walt Whitman Walt Whitman was the father of English free verse poetry. This poem uses a simple metaphor to mesmerize the audience while still employing some literary devices (i.e. repetition). The
Limerick Short, five lined poems, that are silly and simple. Usually about finding humor in accidents or other unfortunate events. Often takes an unexpected turn.
Id rather have fingers than toes; Id rather have ears than a nose; And as for my hair, Im glad its still there; Ill be awfully sad when it goes. --Gelett Burgess Structure: a,a, b,b, a The Haiku
Poetic form that originated from Japan. Traditional haiku has three lines. All together the poem is 17 syllables. Usually describes a single image.
Haiku cont Summer Grasses All that remains Of warriors dreams. Syllables: 5,7,5 The Sonnet Made famous by William
Shakespeare. Follows careful rules about length and line. Divided into 4 parts Three quatrains (4 lines each) and a couplet (2 lines). Follows specific rules on stressed and unstressed beats
BONUS Emily Dickinson Poems On pages 13-15. Pick ONE of the poems to read. Analyze using TPS-FASTT paying particular attention to her DICTION. She doesnt use a TON of figurative language but rather focuses on her words (partly because they guided her meter). However, she did use assonance and consonance. For Theme brainstorm a list of topics first. What could the poem be about literally OR figuratively?
Due Tuesday for bonus points. The more detailed, the more points.
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What is a PLA? Program Letter of Agreement (PLA): A written document that addresses GME responsibilities between an individual accredited program and a site other than the sponsoring institution at which residents receive a required part of their education.¹
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