Living Cells - Oronsay

Living Cells - Oronsay

National 5 Stem Cells and Meristems D G Mr on s id v a Stem Cells Stem cells are only found in animals and they are unspecialised, i.e.

they have no specific function. They can: Reproduce repeatedly by mitosis and cell division and remain unspecialised. Develop into specialised cells when required to replace damaged or old cells. 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 2 Stem Cells There are 2 types of stem cells: Embryonic stem cells.

These are found in very early embryos. They have the ability to develop into any type of cell the body requires. They can even develop into complete organs. 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 3 Stem Cells Adult stem cells. These are sometimes called tissue stem cells and dont have the same regenerative

powers as embryonic stem cells. They can usually only regenerate cells associated with the tissues in which they are found. 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 4 Uses of Stem Cells Stem cells have some very important medical applications and stem cell technology is a rapidly developing field in modern biology.

Some important medical applications of stem cells include the following: 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 5 Medical Application of Stem Cells Bone Marrow Transplant Used to treat some forms of blood cancer such as leukaemia. White blood cells divide uncontrollably. The patient has the cancerous bone

marrow cells destroyed and replaced with blood forming stem cells. 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 6 Medical Application of Stem Cells Skin Grafts. Traditional skin grafts involve removing a layer of skin from one part of the body and covering another damaged part. Using stem cells, they are cultured to

allow them to multiply, and then sprayed on the damaged skin to allow the skin to regenerate. 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 7 Medical Application of Stem Cells Repairing Heart Muscle Although this is still being tested, it is hoped that in future stem cells will be used to repair heart muscle after a heart

attack. 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 8 Medical Application of Stem Cells Cornea repair Stem cells from the patients themselves can be grown and then transplanted onto the surface of the eye to treat damaged corneal cells.

2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 9 Medical Application of Stem Cells Future applications of stem cell technology.

Diabetes Alzheimers disease Stroke victims Parkinsons disease Multiple sclerosis Spinal-cord injuries. 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 10 Stem Cells The Issues There are many issues surrounding

stem cells and their uses. Many people disagree with the use of embryonic stem cells as the embryo is destroyed. Some would argue that the embryos are excess and would be destroyed anyway. 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 11 Stem Cells The Issues Stem cell technology is very similar to cloning which has its own issues.

Safety concerns. Some people are uncomfortable with mixing genetic material from different species. It is important to remember that there is more than one side to every argument. 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 12 Meristems Unlike animals, where growth stops upon reaching adulthood, plants

continue to grow throughout their lives. However, this growth is restricted to specific areas of the plants known as meristems. Meristems are found at the root tips and the shoot tips of plants. 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 13 Meristems The cells here are non-specialised with the potential to grow into

whatever cells the plant needs. Cells in the meristems divide by mitosis. Some of these cells remain unspecialised to continue to produce new cells. 2/28/20 Mr G Davidson 14

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