Mid-Atlantic Region Japan-in-the-Schools (MARJiS) Program U.S. Educational Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future University of Maryland Educational Technology Outreach Director: Davina Pruitt-Mentle November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 1 U.S. Educational Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future
Statistics Trends in Educational Technology Teacher Training Trends Standards Current Issues in Educational Technology New Challenges Current K-12 Trends Activities for you to explore November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 2 Educational Technology Drivers Equal Access Technology At home At school Training
Usage November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 3 Digital Divide Differences in access between haves and have-nots Gap still exists but is narrowing Studies focus on socio-economic condition, race, gender, and education Access highest for November 2, 2001 Upper income brackets White Male
College degree MARJiS Program 4 Internet Usage 2000 Percentage 2000 Percentage All adults 56 Under $30,000 38 Men 58 $30K $50K
64 Women 54 $50K $75K 72 Whites 57 $75K+ 82 Blacks 43 High School or less
39 Hispanics 47 Some College 71 18-29 75 College Degree or more 82 30-49 65 50-64
51 65+ 15 November 2, 2001 Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project surveys, Nov-Dec 2000. Margin of error is 3%. MARJiS Program 5 Maryland Trends Source: Maryland Business Roundtable November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 6
Teacher Training Leads to Effectiveness Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen Education (2000) Only 62% of teachers with one or more computers systems in the classroom use the computer for instruction Teachers commonly report that they have not received adequate preparation in the effective use of computers within the classroom. The more ambitious and promising applications of computers call for considerably more skill from the teacher, who must effectively integrate technology into the curriculum and devise ways of assessing student work based on individual and group projects. Technology effectiveness requires teacher training November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 7 Characteristics of Teachers Who Successfully Integrate Technology
Experienced (median age = 44) Technology savvy (upper quintile of skills) Instructional leaders, not fringe innovators Access to multiple networked computers in classroom Have online computer at home (74%) Spend over $100 of personal funds on project (63%) Source: 3Com (2000) Preparing Teachers to Use IT in the Classroom November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 8 What do teachers need to be ready for technology?
Develop a philosophy Purchase products Identify and solve problems Speak the language See where technology fits in educational integration Do computers make a difference? Do pencils make a difference? November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 9 Technology in Education Since 1920- emphasis on radio and television Current Internet 20 years from now
Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction (ICAI) Monitor student performance Create personal profile for each student Automatically tailor instruction to particular needs Update profile as progress is made Virtual Reality (VR) Simulation November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 10 Educational Technology Definition by Roblyer & Edwards: Educational technology is a combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems,
with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies. Roblyer, M.D., and Edwards, J. (2000). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. (2nd Edition) Merrill Publishing November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 11 Four Perspectives That Shaped Educational Technology Four Historical Perspectives Media and AV Communications Instructional Systems Vocational training (technology education) Computer systems (educational computing) November 2, 2001
Origins Higher Education Instructors, 1930s Military/industrial trainers; later, university R&D, 1960s-1970s Industry trainers, vocational educators, 1980s Programmers, systems analysts; later, university R&D, 1960s MARJiS Program Current Organization AECT ISPI ITEA ISTE 12 Various Approaches to Technology in Education
November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 13 Integrating Educational Technology Process of determining which electronic tools and which methods for implementing them are appropriate for given classroom situations and problems November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 14 Milestones and Trends in Educational Computing Technology The Era Before Microcomputers 1950 - First instructional computer use: computerized flight simulator used to train
pilots at MIT 1959 - First computer use in schools: IBM 650 1966 - IBM offers the 1500 system: Dedicated instructional mainframe 1967 - CCC offers first minicomputerbased instructional system (DEC PDP/1); Mitre Corporation offers TICCIT system 1970s - CDC offers the Plato instructional delivery system The Microcomputer Era and Beyond 1977 - First microcomputers enter schools 1980 - Seymore Papert writes Mindstorms: The Logo movement begins 1980s MECC offers microcomputer software; educational materials publishers begin
courseware development and marketing The courseware evaluation is emphasized: MicroSIFT, EPIE, others The computer literacy movement begins, then wanes after 1988 1990s - Use of ILS and other networked systems increases; multimedia use and development increases The Internet Era 1994 - Widespread use of the Internet begins 2000 - Virtual reality systems and other virtual environments are emphasized November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 15 What have we learned from the past? No technology is a panacea for education Computer literacy/technological
literacy is a moving target Computer literacy/technological literacy offers a limited integration rationale Standalone computers and networked computers have benefits and limitations November 2, 2001 Teachers usually do not develop technology materials or curriculum Technically possible does not equal desirable, feasible, or inevitable Things change faster than teachers can keep up Older technologies can be useful Teachers always will be important MARJiS Program 16
Elements of a Rationale for Using Technology in Education Motivation Unique instructional capabilities Support for new instructional approaches Increased teacher productivity Required skills for an information age November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 17 Elements of a Rationale for Using Technology in Education
Motivation Gaining learner attention Engaging the learner through production work Increasing perceptions of control (intrinsic motivation) Unique instructional capabilities Linking learners to information sources Helping learners visualize problems and solutions Tracking learner progress Linking learners to learning tools Support for new instructional approaches Cooperative learning Shared Intelligence
Problem solving and higher-level skills November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program Increased teacher productivity Freeing time to work with students by helping with production and record keeping tasks Providing more accurate information more quickly Allowing teachers to produce betterlooking more student-friendly materials more quickly Required skills for an information age Technology literacy Information literacy Visual literacy 18 New Initiative: Educational Technology Standards ISTE (International Society for Technology in
Education) and NCATE (National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education) have developed pre-service standards National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for K-12 Technology Standards for School Administrators (TSSA) for Principals November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 19 NCATE & ISTE Establish standards for teaching in education Increase emphasis in use of technology in teacher training November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 20
NCATE/ISTE Required Technology Competencies for Educational Technology Leaders Operate a computer system to use software successfully Evaluate and use computers and other technologies to support instruction Explore, evaluate, and use technology-based applications for communications, presentations, and decision making Apply current instructional principles and research and appropriate assessment practices to the use of computers and related technologies Demonstrate knowledge of uses of computers for
problem solving, data collection, information management, communications, presentations, and decision making Develop student learning activities that integrate computers and technology for a variety of student grouping strategies and for diverse student populations November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program
Evaluate, select, and integrate computer/technologybased instruction in the curriculum in a subject area and/or grade level Demonstrate knowledge of uses of multimedia, hypermedia, and telecommunications tools to support instruction Demonstrate skills in using productivity tools for professional and personal use, including word processing, database management, spreadsheet software, and print/graphic utilities Demonstrate knowledge of equity, ethical, legal, and human issues of computing and technology use as they relate to society, and model appropriate behavior Identify resources to keep current in applications of computing and related technologies in education use technology to access information to enhance personal and professional productivity Apply computers and related technologies to facilitate emerging roles of learners and educators 21 Standards Online ISTE Draft: http://cnets.iste.org/review/ectlitreview2.html
NCATE Standards: http://www.ncate.org/standard/m_stds.htm Joint ISTE/NCATE: http://www.iste.org/standards/ncate/ TSSA: http://cnets.iste.org/tssa/ NETS for Students: http://cnets.iste.org/index2.html November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 22 Todays Big Issues in Education and Technology Societal issues pro-technology movement anti-technology movement Cultural and equity issues
economic/ethnic bias multi-cultural issues gender bias special needs students Educational issues directed vs. constructivist debate interdisciplinary vs. single-subject instruction technical issues November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 23 New Challenges Technology skills and standards New teacher and administrator requirements and assessments Integrate of technology within curriculum (state & national standards) Established student competencies Staying abreast of local and societal attitudes Using strategies to ensure equity
Digital divide Assistive technology Matching integration strategies with needs November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 24 Current Trends in the K-12 Classroom PD activity ends with a teacher developed lesson plan Lesson Plan databases for others to use Make use of other on-line activities Implementing educational software into daily activities PowerPoint, Excel, Kid Pix, Inspiration, Kidspiration, StoryWeaver, etc.
Selected Internet activities WebQuests, Scavenger Hunts, Treasure Hunts, etc. Problem-Solving Courseware Educational Games, Simulations, Case Studies E-Learning New Equipment Developments Graphic Calculators and Probes Handheld Devices & E-Books Wireless & Wearable Computers Group Activities Assessment through Electronic Portfolios November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 25
Lesson Plan Databases Kathy Schrock http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/ AskEric Lesson Plans http://www.askeric.org/Virtual/Lessons/ The Lesson Plans Page http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ EdHelper http://www.edhelper.com/ TeachersNet http://teachers.net/lessons/ November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 26 Try ... Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching: http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/ roblyer/
Go to Try This! Tutorial Select Step 1 November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 27 Inspiration November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 28 Kidspiration November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 29
Kid Pix November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 30 Selected Internet Activities WebQuests (http://edweb.sdsu.edu/webquest/webquest.html) Scavenger Hunts (http://lserver.aea14.k12.ia.us/ Scavenger.html) Treasure Hunts (http://www.cybersurfari.org/) November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program
31 Games & Simulations November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 32 Electronic Portfolios November 2, 2001 MARJiS Program 33
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