London Group Meeting Copenhagen, Denmark 22-24 September 2004 ...
London Group Meeting Copenhagen, Denmark 22-24 September 2004 Session: Policy uses of environmental accounts Indicators for Water and Land Issues Jean-Louis Weber, European Environment Agency Indicators are strange objects They need to be at the same time: in small number AND give the appropriate details expected by the user explicit and stand alone AND express interactions understandable by the general public, decision-makers (generally with cost-benefit considerations in mind) AS WELL AS by scientists. Environmental accounts can help in solving some of these contradictions Accounts are a language Accounts are an analytical and aggregation model Accounts are a language Integrated nomenclatures and definitions are technically useful for cross checking and assimilating heterogeneous data sources they may help different communities in understanding each other coherent, exhaustive, structured & transparent basis for calculating monetary indicators related to environment issues bringing together indicators describing the various aspects of ecosystem condition. Accounts are an analytical and aggregation model Remark: model only valid when the conservation of value applies: material and energy (1st law of thermodynamics), land
However: when accounting balances are relevant, they supply aggregated indicators (their totals) that can be detailed by sub-indicators related either to their composition or to the sectors (in the broader sense) involved. 2 examples Translation of water accounts into the DPSIR framework Aggregation/ disaggregation of indicators derived from land accounts Translation of water accounts into the DPSIR framework Policy targets: The EU Water Framework Directive The EU objective of halting biodiversity loss in Europe by 2010 DPSIR & Water: e.g. the Rivers ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE RIVERS Driving forces Hydro-electricity production Population growth Pressure Disruption of the natural course of the rivers by dams Modification of the natural hydraulic condition Development of recreational services Use of fertilisers and pesticides Water abstraction (in summertime) Irrigation
Seasonal use of water (tourism) Polluting emissions to water State Impacts Hydrographic network Regional impacts on the integrity, by large, medium ecological conditions of rivers and small rivers on terrestrial biotopes and species Periodicity of water stress in rivers Decrease in the fish stocks Impacts on the ecological and composition conditions of rivers on the economy Decrease in other aquatic fauna (benthic invertebrates...) Decrease in birds and Impacts on the ecological mamals linked with the riverine biotope Eutrophication Composite index: Ecological conditions of the rivers Length of large, medium and small rivers (km) w eighted by their discharge, the integrity index and the other state indicators; breakdow n by river basins, ecological and administrative regions. conditions of rivers on
amenities Responses River basin management schemes Enforcement of the respect of the natural discharge rates Pricing policy of the use of water Taxation of polluting emissions Water protection expenditure Translation of water accounts into the DPSIR framework: D-P ACCOUNTING VARIABLES Natural Asset, Supply & Use, Satellite accounts, Emission (hybrid ) SNA accounts, Satellite accounts INDICATORS & TYPE Physical Consumption DRIVING FORCES Socio-economic values Production, Supply Other Use PRESSURE
Use of the resource & Emissions Emissions Stocks STATE Availability & Limiting factors, Water quality Monetary Intermediate and final Water received by consumption of water sectors and self-supply (national accounts) Investments in dams, channels, irrigation Operation of the water schemes, sewerage...; resource by the sectors, running costs of water dams, Supply of water to supply and prices; sectors turnover of the distribution of water Seasonal demands for Turnover of sectors amenities (sport, tourism, depending on water, parks, private Abstraction rights gardens), Abstraction allocated rights allocated Abstraction from water bodies (by sectors), minus Water lost in
Abstraction rights used, transport and irrigation Value of the distributed (returns); Artificial evapowater transpiration & direct discharge to sea (consumption of water) COMPUTABLE INDICATORS Physical Monetary Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting variables Discharge of waste water, discharge of pollutants (fluxes) - Accounting variables Non internalised costs (social costs) of the use of the water system as a sink Natural and semi-natural
assets (reservoirs, lakes, channels, rivers, groundwater, water in soil) - Accounting variables Asset value of water in reservoirs Translation of water accounts into the DPSIR framework: S-I-R Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting variables ACCOUNTING VARIABLES Natural Asset, Supply & Use, Satellite accounts, Emission (hybrid ) SNA accounts, Satellite accounts INDICATORS & TYPE Physical Consumption Stocks STATE DRIVING FORCES Availability & Limiting factors, Water quality
Socio-economic values Flows Quality IMPACTS Vulnerability of economy, ecosystem and human life Depletion of the resource Society responses Precipitation, runoff, infiltration, evapotranspiration; availability of the water resource Quality of the available water resource by type of water bodies Physical Monetary Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting Asset value ofvariables water in reservoirs -
Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting- variables - Accounting variables Damage costs (Restoration costs or Avoidance costs) Accounting variables & Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting variables & Storage and transport of Transport and storage of Economic losses due to Seasonal stress, Local water; treatment before water, Purification before water shortages, to the shortages, Stress on the use use maintenance of minimum river ecosystems flows in rivers Quality of aquifers and Degradation of rivers, quality/ health of the environment -
Protection activities water ecosystems Supply of polluted water to households Sewerage and water treatment Changes in Process & Behaviour Recycling of water, Costs and economic irrigation techniques, benefits desalination of sea water Health RESPONSES Monetary Natural and semi-natural Intermediate and final Water by lakes, assets received (reservoirs, consumption of water sectors and self-supply channels, rivers, (national accounts) groundwater, water in soil) COMPUTABLE INDICATORS Accounting variables
Accounting variables Protection expenditure Accounting variables Damage costs (Restoration costs or Avoidance costs) Accounting variables Health costs related to use of polluted water Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting variables Accounting variables & ecological benefits calculations Accounting variables Accounting variables Abatement of polluting Economic and discharges to water; legal instruments minimum flows and reserves Taxes, Incentives Conclusion: it seems it works ! Not as a set of indicators, which has to be defined altogether with scientists and users, for specific targets But as a reservoir for producing a range of indicators tailored to user needs Aggregation/ disaggregation of indicators derived from land accounts Policy objectives
Environment in land planning (ESDP) and urban planning (Urban strategy) EU agricultural policy: IRENA, the 35 agrienvironmental indicators Land Accounts: e.g. Italy Units : ha Summary balance of consumption and formation of land cover ITALY 1990-2000 IRENA 24: an EU agri-environmental indicator derived from land accounts ITALY 1990-2000 ha CORINE LAND COVER CLASSES 2A 2B Arable land Pastures & & mixed permanent farmland crops TOTAL CHANGE OF THE PERIOD MEAN ANNUAL CHANGE Land cover flows LCF511 Intensive conversion from forest to agriculture 1489 1169 LCF512 Diffuse conversion from forest to agriculture 1489
149 1169 117 6090 609 1061 1061 106 91 145 236 24 (1) Formation of agricultural land cover over forests & semi-natural land 7670 2375 10045 1005 LCF61 Withdrawal of farming with woodland creation LCF521 Intensive conversion from semi-natural land to agriculture 6090 LCF522 Diffuse conversion from semi-natural land to agriculture LCF53 Conversion from wetlands to agriculture 3044
23939 26983 2698 LCF62 Withdrawal of farming without significant woodland creation 23263 34089 57352 5735 (2) Consumption of agricultural land cover by forests & semi-natural land 26308 58028 84336 8434 -18637 -55653 -74291 -7429 IRENA 24a : Net Formation of Agricultural Land Cover over Forests & Semi-natural Land = (1)-(2) (Negative numbers mean that, on the average, farmland abandonment is more important than the new extension of agriculture) National and Regional Net Land Cover Change a Italy 1990-2000 Units : ha
Artificial surfaces 100000 Water bodies 0 Arable land & permanent crops Pastures & mixed farmland Open spaces with Forests and little or no transitional vegetation woodland shrub Natural grassland, heathland, sclerophylous vegetation Wetlands -100000 National and Regional Net Land Cover Change b Italian Coast (all) 1990-2000 ha Artificial surfaces 40000 Water b odies 0 Wetlands -40000 Arab le land & permanent crops
Pastures & mixed farmland Forests and transitional woodland shrub Open spaces with little or no vegetation Natural grassland, heathland, sclerophylous vegetation National and Regional Net Land Cover Change c 3 Italian Regions 1990-2000 ha Artificial surfaces 50000 8231 Arab le land & permanent crops Water b odies 0 Wetlands Artificial surfaces Water b odies 0 Pastures & mixed farmland -50000 Wetlands Forests and
transitional woodland shrub Open spaces with little or no vegetation -8231 Pastures & mixed farmland Forests and transitional woodland shrub Open spaces with little or no vegetation Natural grassland, heathland, sclerophylous vegetation Arab le land & permanent crops Natural grassland, heathland, sclerophylous vegetation Net land cover change 1990-2000 BASILICATE Net land cover change 1990-2000 SARDEGNA Artificial surfaces 8231 Water b odies 0 Wetlands -8231
Arab le land & permanent crops Pastures & mixed farmland Forests and transitional woodland shrub Open spaces with little or no vegetation Natural grassland, heathland, sclerophylous vegetation Net land cover change 1990-2000 LOMBARDIA Conclusion: It is possible to deliver information matching better the needs (sometimes, contradictory needs) of the users in terms of thematic and geographic aggregation/disaggregation The EEA will not publish land accounts but is creating a web-based data service from which it will be possible to produce accounts (and derived maps and indicators) at any scale
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