Lower Appendicular Skeleton Pelvic Girdle Composed of sacrum, coccyx, and 2 coxae (hipbones) Coxae have 3 distinct parts: Ilium Ischium Pubis
Pelvic Girdle, continued.. Coxae parts fuse together in the acetabulum, a cup-shaped area on the lateral surface of the hip that receives the head of the femur. Ilium Largest and uppermost portion of the coxa
The upper edge is called the iliac crest Joins the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint Anterior superior iliac spine- the bony prominence you feel as your hipbone Ischium Forms the lowest portion of the coxa
Ischial tuberosity Points posteriorly AND downward Supports the weight of the body when sitting Ischial spine a sharp projection above the ischial tuberosity, near the junction of the ischium and ilium
Pubis Anterior portion of the coxa Two pubic bones join midline at the symphysis pubis joint Pubic arch Angle formed by pubic bones below the symphysis pubis Arch is wider in females
Femur Longest and strongest bone in the body Head at top fits into __________of coxa Greater trochanter superior, lateral process Lesser trochanter inferior, medial process Distal end:
Two rounded processes posteriorly: lateral condyle and medial condyle Patella articulates anteriorly Tibia aka, shin bone Proximal end: Medial and lateral condyles are concave and articulate with condyles of the femur
Tibial tuberosity just below the condyles; attachment point for patellar ligament Distal end: medial malleolus forms prominent bony point of inner ankle Fibula Proximal: head Articulates with tibia just below
the lateral condyle DOES NOT enter into knee joint or bear any weight Distal: lateral malleolus forms outer prominent bony part of ankle Ankle (Tarsals)
Tiger Cubs Need MILC Talus (A) Calcaneus (heal bone) (K) Navicular (B) Medial cuneiform (D) Intermediate cuneiform (C) Lateral cuneiform (I) Cuboid (J) Side View of the Bones of the
Foot Foot 5 metatarsals numbered 1-5 starting medially Heads at distal ends form the ball of the foot Phalanges Toes
Each toe has 3 phalanges, except the big toe What are the phalanges of each toe called? (HINT: Just like the fingers) Which phalanx is the big toe missing? Joints AKA articulations functional junctions between bones Functions:
Bind parts of the skeletal system Make bone growth possible Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth Enable the body to move in response to skeletal muscle contractions
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