LWW PPT Slide Template Master

LWW PPT Slide Template Master

Chapter 6: Disease Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter Objectives List the major categories of diseases. Compare the common types of infectious organisms, and list some diseases caused by each. Describe some common responses to disease. Define and give examples of neoplasia. Identify and use word parts pertaining to diseases. Define the major terms describing types of diseases. List and define the major manifestations of diseases. Analyze the disease terminology in several case studies. Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 1. Any organism so small that it can only be seen with a microscope is a: (a) miniorganism (b) macroorganism (c) microcell (d) microorganism

Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 1. Any organism so small that it can only be seen with a microscope is a: (a) miniorganism (b) macroorganism (c) microcell (d) microorganism Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 2. A disease that has a sudden and severe onset is described as: (a) chronic (b) mild (c) acute (d) infectious Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest

2. A disease that has a sudden and severe onset is described as: (a) chronic (b) mild (c) acute (d) infectious Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 3. Abnormal and uncontrolled growth of tissue is termed: (a) anemia (b) neoplasia (c) parasitism (d) toxicity Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 3. Abnormal and uncontrolled growth of tissue is termed: (a) anemia (b) neoplasia (c) parasitism (d) toxicity

Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 4. Abnormal and uncontrolled growth of tissue is termed: (a) cocci (b) yeasts (c) fungi (d) bacilli Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 4. Abnormal and uncontrolled growth of tissue is termed: (a) cocci (b) yeasts (c) fungi (d) bacilli Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 5. Single-celled animals, as a group, are called: (a) algae

(b) molds (c) protozoa (d) vibrios Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 5. Single-celled animals, as a group, are called: (a) algae (b) molds (c) protozoa (d) vibrios Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 6. Heat, pain, redness, and swelling are the characteristics signs of: (a) immunity (b) fever (c) inflammation (d) healing Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Pretest 6. Heat, pain, redness, and swelling are the characteristics signs of: (a) immunity (b) fever (c) inflammation (d) healing Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 7. White blood cells engulf foreign organisms by the process of: (a) phagocytosis (b) egestion (c) ejection (d) dysphagia Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 7. White blood cells engulf foreign organisms by the process of:

(a) phagocytosis (b) egestion (c) ejection (d) dysphagia Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 8. The sum of all body defenses against infectious disease is termed: (a) pyosis (b) complementation (c) secretion (d) immunity Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pretest 8. The sum of all body defenses against infectious disease is termed: (a) pyosis (b) complementation (c) secretion (d) immunity

Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Key Terms acute Sudden, severe; having a short course benign Not recurrent or malignant; favorable for recovery; describing tumors that do not spread carcinoma A malignant neoplasm composed of epithelial cells (from Greek root carcino, meaning crab) (adjective: carcinomatous) chronic Of long duration; progressing slowly cyst

An abnormal filled sac or pouch. Used as a root meaning a normal bladder or sac, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder (root: cyst/o) edema Accumulation of fluid in the tissues; swelling. Adjective edematous etiology The cause of a disease Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Key Terms (contd) Gram stain A laboratory staining procedure that divides bacteria into two groups: gram-positive, which stain blue, and gram-negative, which stain red hernia Protrusion of an organ through an abnormal opening; a rupture inflammation

A localized response to tissue injury characterized by heat, pain, redness, and swelling lesion A distinct area of damaged tissue; an injury or wound malignant Growing worse; harmful; tending to cause death; describing an invasive tumor that can spread (metastasize) to other tissues metastasis Spread from one part of the body to another; characteristic of cancer. Verb is metastasize (me-TAS-ta-sz); adjective: metastatic (met-aSTAT-ik) necrosis Death of tissue (root necr/o means death); adjective: necrotic (neKROT-ik) Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Key Terms (contd)

neoplasm An abnormal and uncontrolled growth of tissue, namely, a tumor; may be benign or malignant. From prefix neo- meaning new and root plasm meaning formation. The root onc/o and the suffix -oma refer to neoplasms. parasite An organism that grows on or in another organism (the host), causing damage to it pathogen An organism capable of causing disease (root path/o means disease) phagocytosis The ingestion of organisms, such as invading bacteria or small particles of waste material by a cell (root phag/o means to eat). The phagocytic cell, or phagocyte, then destroys the ingested material. prolapse

A dropping or downward displacement of an organ or part; ptosis Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Key Terms (contd) pus A product of inflammation consisting of fluid and white blood cells (root: py/o) sarcoma A malignant neoplasm arising from connective tissue (from Greek root sarco, meaning flesh) (adjective: sarcomatous) sepsis The presence of harmful microorganisms or their toxins in the blood or other tissues (adjective: septic) toxin A poison (adjective, toxic) (roots: tox/o, toxic/o)

trauma A physical or psychological wound or injury Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Supplementary Terms acid-fast stain A laboratory staining procedure used mainly to identify the tuberculosis (TB) organism communicable Capable of passing from one person to another, such as an infectious disease endemic Occurring at a low level but continuously in a given region, such as the common cold epidemic

Affecting many people in a given region at the same time; a disease that breaks out in a large proportion of a population at a given time exacerbation Worsening of disease; increase in severity of a disease or its symptoms iatrogenic Caused by the effects of treatment (from Greek root iatro-, meaning physician) idiopathic Having no known cause (root idio means self-originating) Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Supplementary Terms (contd) In situ Localized, noninvasive (literally in position); said of tumors that do not spread, such as carcinoma in situ (CIS)

Normal flora The microorganisms that normally live on or in the body. These organisms are generally harmless, and often are beneficial, but they can cause disease under special circumstances, such as injury or failure of the immune system. Nosocomial Describing an infection acquired in a hospital (root nos/o means disease, and comial refers to a hospital). Such infections can be a serious problem, especially if they are resistant to antibiotics; for example, there are now strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), which cause troublesome infections in hospital settings. Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Supplementary Terms (contd) Opportunistic Describing an infection that occurs because of a host's poor or altered condition

Pandemic Describing a disease that is prevalent throughout an entire region or the world. AIDS is now pandemic in certain regions of the world. Remission A lessening of disease symptoms; the period during which such lessening occurs Septicemia Presence of pathogenic bacteria in the blood; blood poisoning Systemic Pertaining to the whole body Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Supplementary Terms Manifestations of Disease abscess

A localized collection of pus adhesion A uniting of two surfaces or parts that may normally be separated anaplasia Lack of normal differentiation, as shown by cancer cells ascites Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity cellulitis A spreading inflammation of tissue effusion Escape of fluid into a cavity or other body part exudate

Material that escapes from blood vessels as a result of tissue injury fissure A groove or split fistula An abnormal passage between two organs or from an organ to the surface of the body Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Supplementary Terms Manifestations of Disease gangrene Death of tissue, usually caused by lack of blood supply; may be associated with bacterial infection and decomposition hyperplasia Excessive growth of normal cells in normal arrangement

hypertrophy An increase in size of an organ without increase in the number of cells; may result from an increase in activity, as in muscles induration Hardening; an abnormally hard spot or place metaplasia Conversion of cells to a form that is not normal for that tissue (prefix meta- means change) polyp A tumor attached by a thin stalk purulent Forming or containing pus suppuration

Pus formation Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Abbreviations AF Acid fast Gm- Gram-negative CA Cancer MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CIS

Carcinoma in situ Staph Staphylococcus FUO Fever of unknown origin Strep Streptococcus Gm+ Gram-positive VRSA Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Roots for Disease Root alg/o, algi/o, algesi/o Meaning pain Example algesia Definition of Example condition of having pain carcin/o cancer, carcinoma carcinoid resembling a carcinoma

cyst/o, cyst/i filled sac or pouch, cyst, bladder cystic pertaining to or having cysts lith calculus, stone lithiasis stone formation onc/o tumor oncogenic

causing a tumor Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Roots for Disease (contd) Root path/o Meaning disease Example pathogen Definition of Example organism that produces disease py/o pus pyoderma

pus-containing skin disease pyr/o, pyret/o fever, fire pyrexia fever scler/o hard sclerosis hardening of tissue tox/o, toxic/o poison endotoxin

toxin within bacterial cells Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Prefixes for Disease Prefix Meaning Example Definition of Example brady- slow bradypnea slow breathing (-pnea) rate dys- abnormal,

painful, difficult dysplasia abnormal development (plas) of tissue mal- bad, poor malabsorption poor absorption of nutrients pachy- thick pachycephaly abnormal thickness of the skull tachy-

rapid tachycardia rapid heart (cardiac) rate xero- dry xeroderma dryness of the skin Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Suffixes for Disease Suffix Meaning Example

Definition of Example -algia, -algesia pain neuralgia pain in a nerve (neur/o) -cele hernia, localized dilation gastrocele hernia of the stomach (gastr/o) -clasis, -clasia

breaking karyoclasis breaking of a nucleus (kary/o) -itis inflammation cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder (cyst/o) -megaly enlargement hepatomegaly enlargement of the liver (hepat/ o)

Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Suffixes for Disease (contd) Suffix Meaning Example Definition of Example -odynia pain urodynia pain on urination (ur/o) -oma* tumor

lipoma tumor of fat cells -pathy any disease of nephropathy any disease of the kidney (nephr/o) *Plural: -omas, -omata. Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Suffixes for Disease (contd) Suffix Meaning Example

Definition of Example -rhage, rhagia bursting forth, profuse flow, hemorrhage hemorrhage profuse flow of blood -rhea flow, discharge pyorrhea discharge of pus -rhexis rupture

amniorrhexis rupture of the amniotic sac (bag of waters) -schisis fissure, splitting retinoschisis splitting of the retina of the eye Remember to double the r when adding this suffix to a root. Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Words for Disease Used as Suffixes Word Meaning

Example Definition of Example dilation*, dilatation* expansion, widening vasodilation widening of blood vessels (vas/o) ectasia, ectasis dilation, dilatation, distension gastrectasia dilatation of the stomach (gastr/o)

edema accumulation of fluid, swelling cephaledema swelling of the head lysis* separation, loosening, dissolving, destruction dialysis separation of substances by passage through (dia-) a membrane malacia

softening Craniomalacia softening of a skull (crani/o) *May also refer to treatment. Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Words for Disease Used as Suffixes Word Meaning Example Definition of Example necrosis death of tissue

Osteonecrosis death of bone (oste/o) tissue ptosis dropping, downward displacement, prolapse blepharoptosis drooping of the eyelid (blephar/o) sclerosis hardening phlebosclerosis hardening of veins

(phleb/o) spasm sudden contraction, cramp arteriospasm spasm of an artery Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Words for Disease Used as Suffixes Word Meaning Example Definition of Example stasis*

suppression, stoppage menostasis suppression of menstrual (men/o) flow stenosis narrowing, constriction bronchostenosis narrowing of a bronchus (air passageway) toxin poison nephrotoxin

substance poisonous or harmful for the kidneys *May also refer to treatment. Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Disease Categories Infectious Caused by microorganisms, parasites called pathogens Degenerative Caused by wear and tear, aging or trauma Arthritis, emphysema Neoplasia Abnormal, uncontrolled growth of tissue Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Disease Categories (contd) Immune disorders Failures of immune system Allergies Autoimmune disorders Metabolic disorders

Caused by lack of enzymes Hereditary disorders Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Disease Categories (contd) Malnutrition Hormonal disorders Underproduction or overproduction of hormones Diabetes mellitus Mental and emotional disorders Affects the mind Individuals unable to adapt to environment Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Infectious Diseases Caused by: Viruses Bacteria Fungi (yeast and molds) Protozoa (single-celled animals) Worms

Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Infectious Diseases (contd) Bacteria categorized by: Shape Round Rod-shaped Curved Arrangements they form Dyes when stained in lab Most common is Gram stain Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Prefixes and Roots for Infectious Diseases Word Part Meaning Example Definition of Example staphyl/o

grapelike cluster staphylococcus a round bacterium that forms clusters strept/o twisted chain streptobacillus a rod-shaped bacterium that forms chains bacill/i, bacill/o bacillus bacilluria bacilli in the urine (-uria) bacteri/o

bacterium bacteriostatic stopping (stasis) the growth of bacteria myc/o fungus, mold mycotic pertaining to a fungus vir/o virus viremia presence of viruses in blood (-emia)

Prefixes Roots Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Responses to Disease Inflammation Bodys response to infection and diseases Four signs: heat, pain, redness, swelling Suffix itis indicates inflammation Examples include: Appendicitis (inflammation of appendix) Tonsillitis (inflammation of tonsils) Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Responses to Disease (contd) Phagocytosis Process used by body Gets rid of: Invading microorganisms Damaged cells

Other harmful debris Found circulating in blood, tissue, lymphatic system Remains of process called pus Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Phagocytosis Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Response to Diseases (contd) Immunity Immune system controls response to disease Adaptive immunity: acquired during life from exposure to disease organisms Monitors body for: Abnormal cells Malfunctioning cells May cause its own problems Overreaction produces allergies Reaction to own tissues causes autoimmune diseases Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Neoplasia

Neoplasm Abnormal and uncontrolled growth of tissue Metastasizing Benign Malignant Examples of malignant tumors: Carcinoma (epithelial tissue) Sarcoma (connective tissue or muscle) Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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