Management and Leadership Lecture #6 How is Management Important to Public Relations? What is Management? Management: one or more managers individually and collectively setting and achieving goals by exercising functions (planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling) and coordinating various resources (information, materials, money, and people).
Management Managers then are the people who allocate and oversee the use of resources They are responsible for making decisions for the organizations they work for.
Organization- an entity managed by one or more persons to achieve stated goals Management Managers are often responsible for creating three key elements of an organization, as well as, making decisions that are in line with these three elements. Mission: a clear and concise written document of an organizations central and common purpose, its reason for existence
Vision: a clear statement as to where the organization wants to be in the future Core Values: values that should never change Why Organizations Need Managers Every organization has a set of values and beliefs that are important and meaningful to the organization and individuals that hold them.
Management must support its organization, and the organization must also support management in order for management to be effective. Managers primarily deal with two things: Quality Customers So What is Managements
Focus? Quality: which are the features and characteristics of a product or service that allow it to satisfy requirements of those who use or consume them. Customer: the person or group, both inside and outside the organization, who consumes outputs from an organization or its members. Internal- inside the organization External- outside the organization Customer Relationship Management (CRM)- long-term approach of strengthening the bond between the customer and organization
What Must a Manager Do? A manager must focus on:
Leadership Ethics Diversity Technological Advances Economic Changes Natural Disasters Crises Social and Political Changes Management Stratum Management Hierarchy:
Top: the chief executive officer and their immediate subordinates, vice presidents; oversee the entire organization Middle: managers below the rank of vice president but above supervisory level; translate top-line management goals to short-term objectives. Regional Managers, Merchandising Managers First-Line Management: supervisors, team leaders, and team facilitators who oversee the work of nonmanagement people; manage day-to-day execution of ongoing operations. In retail, these are the managers who are in the stores interacting with customers
Types of Managers Functional Managers: managers whose expertise lies primarily in one or another specialty areas. Buying, Merchandising, Branding, Communications, Trend. Marketing Managers: identifying current and potential customers needs and preferences, along with developing goods and services that will satisfy them- focus is on the 4 Ps.
Types of Management Continued Operations Management: perform the activities needed to manufacture an item or provide a service- concerned with controlling inventory and deliveries, factory layout, production schedules, maintaining equipment, and meeting quality requirements. Types of Management Continued
Finance Managers: manage the flow of funds, and how the organizations funds can be used effectively-using the companys credit, investing company funds, safeguarding the companys assets, tracking the organizations financial health, and preparing budgets. Types of Management Continued Human Resources Management: responsible for building and maintaining a competent and stable workforce recruiting, selecting, training people,
creating performance appraisal and compensation systems; overseeing relations with the companys unions, handling these functions within the limits and demands of federal, state, and local laws Types of Management Continued Public Relations or Communications Management: it is then the PR or Communications managers role to work across all types of management to help convey the mission of the organization
and departments to its customers in order to gain a positive public opinion with both its internal and external public. Management Functions Planning Organizing Staffing
Leading Controlling Planning Planning- the first function because it lays the groundwork for all other functions, begins with defining goals and alternative ways of meeting them (Planning ahead).
Goals are the start of planning, they can be long-term or short-term (within one year). Plan- commits individuals, departments, entire organizations, and the resources of each to specific courses of action for days, months, and years into the future. Planning
Duration and Scope of Planning varies from one organization to the next, and also what position the manager is in. Top managers typically plan 5 or more years. Planning Both internal and external forces influence planning. Each planner must consider its impact of their plans on others.
Must continually monitor the external environment. Planning is not a one time activity, plans that have not been executed must be reviewed and dated. Planning Contingency Plans are an alternative
course or courses of action to reach that goal if and when circumstances and assumptions change so drastically as to make an original plan unusable. Planning Managers must continually update their plans based on certain controlled and uncontrolled circumstances. Preparation! Always important to think of as a public relations practitioner.
The only thing constant in business is change. Organizing Organizing- determines the tasks that must be accomplished, group these tasks to form positions to be occupied by full or part-time employees Organizing
Organizing- the management function that establishes relationships between activity and authority Clarifies the work environment Creates a coordinated Environment Achieves the principle of unity of direction Establishes a chain of command 5 Step Organizing Process
Review Plans and Goals-in time basic methods of carrying out plans will change, new departments will be created, old departments may be given new responsibilities, etc. Determining Work Activities- determining what activities are necessary to accomplish goals, begins with identifying ongoing tasks and ends with considering the tasks unique to the business, unique needs being: assembling, machining, shipping, storing, inspecting, selling, and advertising
5 Step Organizing Process Specialization of Division of Labor- the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into separate parts, breaks a potentially difficult job down into simpler tasks or activities (used in fashion), work can be performed more efficiently by gaining skill and expertise, disadvantage is that work becomes mundane- accidents, absenteeism, quality suffers. Constructing a pair of denim: Grading, Cutting, Marking, Sewing, Factions, Embellishments, have all been brokendown into separate jobs in factories, one person is not responsible for constructing the entire garment alone.
5 Step Organizing Process Classifying and Grouping Activities: Examine each activity identified to determine its general nature- marketing, production, finance, human resources Group activities into related areas Establish basic department design 5 Step Management Process (Classifying
Continued) Product Departmentalization: assemble the activities of creating, producing, and marketing each product into a separate department, each product of a company requires a unique marketing strategy, production process, distribution system, or financial resources Customer Departmentalization- groups activities and responsibilities in departments based on the needs of specific customer groups
5 Step Management Process Assigning Work Functional Definition- the activities to be performed
determine the type and quantity of authority necessary Span of Control- the number of subordinates under the direction of a manager Horizontal and Vertical Horizontal flattens the span and makes communications stronger Vertical expands it and makes communications play a game of telephone Usually in retail its is a vertical span, making it difficult to understand what the organizations goals really are. By the time messages are delivered 3 or 4 levels, they have been altered or delivered as ones own interpretation of the message. Staffing
Staffing- acquiring and placing of peopleHuman Resources, important in the overall efficiency of your organization Seeing that the right people are doing the right jobs. Leading Leading- leaders help their employees and organizations achieve their goals. They serve as models for expected
behaviors. They coach, counsel, inspire, and encourage both individuals and groups. Based on mutual respect and trust. Use two-way communication. Motivate Actions Speak Louder Than Words Control
Controlling- attempts to prevent, identify, and correct deviations from guidelines set to evaluate both people and processes (This could definitely be the public relations practitioners function). Communications Audits can help with this aspect of management. Skills Required of Managers Technical Skills- processes, practices, techniques and tools of the specialty area.
Human Skills- the ability to interact and communicate successfully with other individuals Conceptual Skills- the ability to conceive and manipulate ideas and abstract relationships- view an organization as a whole and see how parts relate to and depend on one anotherseeing without really doing, imagining. Managements Use of Authority
Authority- formal and legitimate right of a manager to make decisions, give orders, and allocate resources Line Authority- defines the relationship between superior and subordinate Staff Authority- serves in an advisory capacity, managers who provide advice or technical assistance are granted advisory authority
Functional Authority- permits staff managers to make decisions about specific activities performed by employees within other departments Power Power- the ability to exert influence in an organization, can multiply managers effectiveness to influence people beyond what they can attain through formal authority alone. Power is personal, it exists because of
the person, a person does not need to be a manager to have power. Types of Power Legitimate Power- a power possessed by a manager and derived from the position they occupy in the formal organization. Reward Power- the power that comes from the ability to promise or grant rewards.
Types of Power Coercive Power- the power dependent on fear of the negative results that may happen if one fails to comply. Expert Power- influence due to the abilities, skills, knowledge, or experience. Delegation
As a company grows, delegation becomes more important to the organization. Delegation is the downward transfer of formal authority from one person to another. No person can do it all. Lets managers focus on areas more critical. Training tool for subordinates. Based on mutual trust and respect.
Freedom to experiment and fail without being reprimanded. Delegation As a manager when you do not delegate: You get more overwhelmed by what needs to be done, often getting stressed out and taking your frustration out on others. Does not give subordinates the opportunity to grow.
Can cause managers to fail. By spending time on small tasks, they lose focus of the important ones. Delegation Two things are important to understand when delegating: Responsibility: the obligation to carry out ones assigned duties to the best of ones ability.
Accountability: having to answer to someone for your actions. The two do not relieve managers of their duties. Leadership Leadership is one of the most important parts of anyone working in an organization.
Leadership- in its management application is the process of influencing individuals and groups to set and achieve goals. Leadership Managers have the power to influence, inspire, and motivate those working for them. Influence- the power to sway other people to ones will or views.
Leadership involves three variables: those being led, circumstances, and the situations they find themselves facing. Leadership Skills
Diplomacy Fluency in Communication Persuasive Social Assertive Persistent Clever Creative Management vs. Leadership Managers plan, organize, staff, lead and control. May or may not be influencing their subordinates or team members to set and achieve goals.
Leadership- the empowerment to give people the things they need to grow, to change, and to cope with things, create and share visions. Leadership and management skills combine to allow a manager to function as a leader Corporate Leadership Leadership begins in a corporate setting when a person
leads by example and creates a vision. A leader comes up with a strategy for achieving that vision, and empowers people at every level committed to change. We are adaptable individuals, and leaders are the ones who make us want to change. Leadership is the ability to articulate a vision and to
inspire the best efforts of followers. Power and Leadership Power- gives people the ability to exert influence over others, to get them to follow, Leaders possess power as do all managers whether or not they are leaders. Possessing power can increase the effectiveness of managers by enabling them to inspire peoplegetting them to
perform willingly. Leadership Styles A managers leadership style results from their philosophies about motivation, the choices of decision-making styles, and their areas of emphasis in the work environment Leadership Styles
Positive vs. Negative Motivation Motivation based on Reward or Penalties Positive Leadership Styles: Praise, recognition, rewards, granting additional responsibilities- encourage development of employees, which leads to job satisfaction Negative Leadership Styles: fines, suspensions, termination- Do it my way or else, creates an environment of fear Leadership Styles
Decision-Making Styles- the degree to which he or she shares decision-making authority with subordinates, can range from not sharing at all to completely delegating decision-making authority Leadership Styles Autocratic Style- does not share decision-making authority with subordinates- makes the decisions and then announces them, called the I approach
Leadership Styles Participative Style- shares decisionmaking authority with subordinates, degree of sharing rangeswe approach, involves others and lets them bring unique viewpoints, talents, and experiences. Leadership Styles Free-Rein Style- empowers individuals or
groups to function on their own, they approach, relies heavily on delegation and when parties have expert power. Leadership Styles Task Oriented vs. People Oriented Either a focus on task or focus on employees perspective
Can be used separately or combined Leadership Throughout the Organization Leadership must be seen at all levels of the organization or else change will not be made. Managers should encourage and empower people to become leaders at every level.
Leadership has been known to work so well that some managers have chosen employees to solve quality problems. Both quality and morale improved. Leaders sometimes have to make unpopular and difficult decisions, must have the courage to see their decisions through and face consequences/criticism. Becoming a Better Leader
Comes from within Based off of an individuals philosophies of their work Managers who respect others will value diversity and treat others with respect If you value security, you may not have the ability to make tough decisions and face the consequences that go along with those decisions Be adaptable, because leadership is situational Remain open to what is new and different Must be willing to suppress what they see fitting for themselves and implement what is best for others The Public Relations Professional as a
Manager Must be able to work with and communicate across all levels of an organization. Must be able to oppose ideas and suggestions made by executives if they see them as harmful to the organization the lonely voice Must be able to lead Must understand how as a communications executive your decisions impact the opinions
of customers, employees, shareholders, vendors, suppliers, and the media. Final Thoughts Management has various levels. Management must control: authority, power, delegation, influence, and leadership. Always try to lead by example.
Work ethic spotlights the character. Some turn up there sleeves, some turn up their noses, and others dont turn up at all. References Plunkett, W.R., Attner, R.F., Allen, G.S. (2008). Management: Meeting and Exceeding Customer Expectations. (9th ed.). South-Western: United States.
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