Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm, 15e

Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm, 15e

Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm Fifteenth Edition Chapter 7 Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology Slides in this presentation contain

hyperlinks. JAWS users should be able to get a list of links by using INSERT+F7 Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives 7.1 What are the principal components of telecommunications networks and key networking technologies? 7.2 What are the different types of networks?

7.3 How do the Internet and Internet technology work, and how do they support communication and e-business? 7.4 What are the principal technologies and standards for wireless networking, communication, and Internet access? Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Video Cases Case 1: Telepresence Moves out of the Boardroom and into the Field

Case 2: Virtual Collaboration with IBM Sametime Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved RFID Helps Macys Pursue an Omnichannel Strategy (1 of 2) Problem Omnichannel retail strategy Inventory inaccuracy Solutions

Revise inventory management processes RFID tags and readers Tyco TrueVUE software and Pick to the Last Unit (P2LU) Shopkick Bluetooth beacons Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved RFID Helps Macys Pursue an Omnichannel Strategy (2 of 2)

Macys uses P2LU to increase inventory accuracy and Shopkick to beam sales promotions to customers Demonstrates ITs role in helping organizations increase efficiency and lower costs Illustrates the ability of IT systems to support inventory management and sales Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Networking and Communication Trends

Convergence Telephone networks and computer networks converging into single digital network using Internet standards Broadband More than 74 percent U.S. Internet users have broadband access Broadband wireless Voice, data communication are increasingly taking place over broadband wireless platforms

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved What is a Computer Network? Two or more connected computers Major components in simple network Client and server computers Network interfaces (NICs) Connection medium Network operating system (NOS) Hubs, switches, routers

Software-defined networking (SDN) Functions of switches and routers managed by central program Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.1 Components of a Simple Computer Network Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Networks in Large Companies Hundreds of local area networks (LANs) linked to firmwide corporate network Various powerful servers Website, corporate intranet, extranet Backend systems Mobile wireless LANs (Wi-Fi networks) Videoconferencing system Telephone network, wireless cell phones Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7.2 Corporate Network Infrastructure Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Key Digital Networking Technologies (1 of 3) Client/server computing Distributed computing model Clients linked through network controlled by network server computer

Server sets rules of communication for network and provides every client with an address so others can find it on the network Has largely replaced centralized mainframe computing The Internet: largest implementation of client/server computing Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Key Digital Networking Technologies (2 of 3)

Packet switching Method of slicing digital messages into parcels (packets), sending packets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling packets at destination Previous circuit-switched networks required assembly of complete point-to-point circuit Packet switching more efficient use of networks communications capacity

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.3 Packet-Switched Networks and Packet Communications Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Key Digital Networking Technologies (3 of 3) TCP/IP and connectivity Protocols: rules that govern transmission of information between

two points Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (T CP/IP) Common worldwide standard that is basis for the Internet Department of Defense reference model for T CP/IP Four layers Application layer Transport layer Internet layer Network interface layer

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.4 The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Reference Model Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Types of Networks Signals: Digital versus analog Modem: translates digital signals into analog form

(and vice versa) Types of networks Local area networks (LANs) Ethernet Client/server vs. peer-to-peer Wide area networks (WANs) Metropolitan area networks (MANs) Campus area networks (CANs) Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7.5 Functions of the Modem Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Transmission Media and Transmission Speed Physical transmission media Twisted pair wire (CAT5) Coaxial cable Fiber optics cable

Wireless transmission media and devices Satellites Cellular systems Transmission speed Bits per second (bps) Hertz Bandwidth Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved What is the Internet?

The Internet Worlds most extensive network Internet service providers (ISPs) Provide connections Types of Internet connections Dial-up: 56.6 Kbps Digital subscriber line (DSL/FIOS): 385 Kbps40 Mbp s Cable Internet connections: 150 Mbps Satellite

T1/T3 lines: 1.5445 Mbps Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Internet Addressing and Architecture Each device on Internet assigned Internet Protocol (I P) address 32-bit number, e.g. 207.46.250.119 The Domain Name System (DNS) Converts IP addresses to domain names Hierarchical structure

Top-level domains Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.6 The Domain Name System Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Internet Architecture and Governance Network service providers

Own trunk lines (high-speed backbone networks) Regional telephone and cable TV companies Provide regional and local access Professional organizations and government bodies establish Internet standards I AB I CANN W3C Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7.7 Internet Network Architecture Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Interactive Session: Organizations: The Battle Over Net Neutrality Class discussion What is net neutrality? Why has the Internet operated under net neutrality up to this point? Whos in favor of net neutrality? Whos opposed? Why?

What would be the impact on individual users, businesses, and government if Internet providers switched to a tiered service model for transmission over landlines as well as wireless? It has been said that net neutrality is the most important issue facing the Internet since the advent of the Internet. Discuss the implications of this statement. Are you in favor of legislation enforcing network neutrality? Why or why not? Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Future Internet: IPv6 and Internet 2 IPv6 New addressing scheme for IP numbers Will provide more than a quadrillion new addresses Not compatible with current IPv5 addressing Internet2 Advanced networking consortium Universities, businesses, government agencies, other institutions

Developed high-capacity 100 Gbps testing network Testing leading-edge new technologies for Internet Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Internet Services and Communication Tools (1 of 2) Internet services E-mail Chatting and instant messaging Newsgroups

Telnet File Transfer Protocol (FTP) World Wide Web Voice over IP (VoIP) Digital voice communication using IP, packet switching Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.8 Client/Server Computing on the Internet

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Internet Services and Communication Tools (2 of 2) Unified communications Communications systems that integrate voice, data, e-mail, conferencing Virtual private network (VPN) Secure, encrypted, private network run over Internet

P P TP Tunneling Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.9 How Voice over IP Works Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Interactive Session: Management: Monitoring

Employees on Networks: Unethical or Good Business? Class discussion Should managers monitor employee e-mail and Internet usage? Why or why not? Describe an effective e-mail and web use policy for a company. Should managers inform employees that their web behavior is being monitored? Or should managers monitor secretly? Why or why not?

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.10 A Virtual Private Network Using the Internet Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Web Hypertext Hypertext Markup Language (H TML)

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): Uniform resource locator (URL): http://www.megacorp.com/content/features/082602.html Web servers Software for locating and managing web pages Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Searching for Information on the Web (1 of 2) Search engines

Googles PageRank System Mobile search Semantic search Social search Visual search and the visual web Tagging Pinterest Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Searching for Information on the Web (2 of 2) Intelligent agent shopping bots Search engine marketing Search engine optimization (SEO) Link farms Search engine algorithms Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.11 Top U.S. Web Search Engines

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.12 How Google Works Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Web 2.0 (1 of 2) Second-generation services Enabling collaboration, sharing information, and creating

new services online Features Interactivity Real-time user control Social participation (sharing) User-generated content Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Web 2.0 (2 of 2)

Blogs: chronological, informal websites created by individuals RSS (Really Simple Syndication) Blogosphere Microblogging Wikis: collaborative websites where visitors can add, delete, or modify content on the site Social networking sites: enable users to build communities of friends and share information

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Web 3.0 and The Future Web More tools to make sense of trillions of pages on the Internet Pervasive web Internet of Things Internet of People App Internet Increased cloud computing and SaaS

Ubiquitous mobile connectivity Greater seamlessness of web as a whole Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Cellular Systems Competing standards CDMA: United States only GSM: Rest of world, AT&T, T-Mobile Third-generation (3G) networks 144 Kbps

Suitable for e-mail access, web browsing Fourth-generation (4G) networks Up to 100 Mbps Suitable for Internet video LTE and WiMax Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Wireless Computer Networks and Internet Access (1 of 2) Bluetooth (802.15)

Links up to 8 devices in 10-m area using low-power, radio-based communication Useful for personal networking (PANs) eter Wi-Fi (802.11) Set of standards: 802.11 Used for wireless LAN and wireless Internet access Use access points: device with radio receiver/transmitter for connecting wireless devices to

a wired LAN Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Wireless Computer Networks and Internet Access (2 of 2) Hotspots: one or more access points in public place to provide maximum wireless coverage for a specific area Weak security features WiMax (802.16)

Wireless access range of 31 miles Require WiMax antennas Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.13 A Bluetooth Network (PAN) Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.14 An 802.11 Wireless LAN

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Use tiny tags with microchips containing data about an item and location Tag antennas to transmit radio signals over short distances to special RFID readers Common uses: Automated toll-collection

Tracking goods in a supply chain Reduction in cost of tags making RFID viable for many firms Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.15 How RFID Works Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Networks of hundreds or thousands of interconnected wireless devices Used to monitor building security, detect hazardous substances in air, monitor environmental changes, traffic, or military activity Devices have built-in processing, storage, and radio frequency sensors and antennas Require low-power, long-lasting batteries and ability to endure in the field without maintenance

Major sources of Big Data and fueling Internet of Things Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 7.16 A Wireless Sensor Network Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Copyright Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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