Managing Human Resources 15e. - Jerry Stevens

Managing Human Resources 15e. - Jerry Stevens

Job Analysis and Job Design The Challenges of Human Resources Management 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 11 What is a Job? Job A group of related activities and duties Job Job Position The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee Job Job Job Job Job Job Job Family A group of individual jobs with similar characteristics 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart,

whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 43 3 of 26 36 What is Job Analysis A job analysis is the systematic process of collecting information about all of the parameters of a jobits basic responsibilities, the behaviors, skills, and the physical and mental requirements of the people who do it. HR managers use the data to develop job descriptions and job specifications that are the basis for employee performance appraisal and development. A job analysis should also outline the tools needed to do the job, the environment and times at which it needs to done, with whom it needs to be done, and the outcome or performance level it should produce. 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart,

whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 14 4 of 26 36 Job Requirements Job Description Statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) of a job to be performed Job Specification Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of the person who is to perform the job Since Griggs v Duke Power and the Civil Rights Act of 1991, job specifications used in selection must relate specifically to the duties of the job. 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage

Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 5 of 26 36 HRM Functions Affected by a Job Analysis 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as

in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 6 of 26 36 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected

website for classroom use. 7 of 26 36 Determining Job Requirements Nature of: Job Analysis What Whatemployee employeedoes does Why Whyemployee employeedoes doesitit How Howemployee employeedoes doesitit Basis for: Determining job requirements Determining job requirements Job Description Summary statement of the job Summary statement of the job List of essential functions of the List of essential functions of the job job Employee Employeeorientation orientation Employee Employeeinstruction instruction Disciplinary Disciplinaryaction action Recruitment Recruitment Selection Selection Development Development

Job Specification Personal qualifications required Personal qualifications required in interms termsof ofskills, skills,education educationand and experience experience 2012 All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Learning. Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 48as 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service

or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 8 of 26 36 Job Analysis and the Law Section 14.C.2 of the Uniform Guidelines states: There shall be a job analysis which includes an analysis of the important work behaviors required for successful performance. . . . Any job analysis should focus on work behavior(s) and the tasks associated with them. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Requires that job duties and responsibilities be essential functions for job success. The purpose of essential functions is to help match and accommodate human capabilities to job requirements. 2012 Cengage Learning. All May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2010 South-Western, a Rights part ofReserved. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product

or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 49 9 of 26 36 Job Analysis and Essential Job Functions Essential Functions Statements in the job description of job duties and responsibilities that are critical for success on the job. A job function is essential if: The position exists to perform the function. A limited number of employees are available to perform the function. The function is specialized, requiring needed expertise or abilities to complete the job. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as

in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 410 10 of 26 36 Performing Job Analysis 1. Select jobs to study 2. Determine information to collect: Tasks, responsibilities, skill requirements 3. Identify sources of data: Employees, supervisors/managers 4. Methods of data collection: Interviews, questionnaires, observation, diaries and records 5. Evaluate and verify data collection: Other employees, supervisors/managers 6. Write job analysis report 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor

part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 411 11 of 26 36 Controlling the Accuracy of Job Information Factors influencing the accuracy of job information Self-reporting exaggerations and omissions by employees and managers Collecting information from a representative sample of employees Capturing all important job information Length of job cycle exceeding observation period Lack of access to job site for personal observation Lack of familiarity with the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job Ongoing changes in the job 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned,

or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 412 12 of 26 36 O*NET and Job Analysis Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) A systematic occupational classification structure based on interrelationships of job tasks and requirements. Contains standardized and comprehensive descriptions of twenty-thousand jobs. O*NET Database A online database of all DOT occupations plus an update of over 3,500 additional DOT occupations. Data are collected and published continuously. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning.

All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 413 13 of 26 36 Methods Used to Collect Job Analysis Data Five of the more popular methods are 1. The functional job analysis 2. The Position Analysis questionnaire system 3. The critical incident method 4. A task inventory analysis 5. A competency-based job analysis. 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned,

or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 14 of 26 36 Approaches to Job Analysis Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) A questionnaire covering 194 different tasks that, by means of a five-point scale, seeks to determine the degree to which different tasks are involved in performing a particular job Critical Incident Method Job analysis method by which job tasks are identified that are critical to job success. Information about important job tasks can be collected through interviews or self reporting by employees and supervisors. The job analyst writes five to ten important task statements for each job under study. This method is important because it teaches the analyst to focus on employee behaviors critical to job success. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012

Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 415 15 of 26 36 Approaches to Job Analysis (contd) Task Inventory Analysis Is an organization-specific analysis developed by identifyingwith the help of employees and managers a list of tasks and their descriptions that are components of different jobs. Competency-Based Analysis Involves constant development of job profiles of current worker tasks, duties, and responsibilities that are key competencies for use in creating job descriptions, setting recruitment requirements, and in performance evaluation. 2012 Cengage Learning. All May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2010 South-Western,

a Rights part ofReserved. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 416 16 of 26 36 Figure 43 A Sample Page from the PAQ Source: Position Analysis Questionnaire, copyright 1969, 1989 by Purdue Research Foundation, West Lafayette, Ind. 47907. Reprinted with permission. 2012 All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except

as permitted 2007 Learning. Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 417 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 17 of 26 36 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May

not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 18 of 26 36 Preparing the Job Description Interview Interview Questionnaire Questionnaire Job Job Analyst Analyst Supervisor Supervisor Securing Securing consensus consensus Interview Interview Questionnaire Questionnaire Observation Observation Final Final Draft Draft Employees Employees Combine

Combineand and reconcile data reconcile data Tentative Tentative draft draft 2012 All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Learning. Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 419 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected

website for classroom use. 19 of 26 36 Key Elements of a Job Description Job Title Indicates job duties and organizational level Job Identification Distinguishes job from all other jobs Essential Functions (Job Duties) Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be accomplished Job Specifications Skills required to perform the job and physical demands of the job 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected

for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 20 of 26 36 Job Descriptions Job Title Provides status to the employee. Indicates what the duties of the job entails. Indicates the relative level occupied by its holder in the organizational hierarchy. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith

distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 421 21 of 26 36 Job Descriptions (contd) Job Identification Section Departmental location of the job Person to whom the jobholder reports Date the job description was last revised Payroll or code number Number of employees performing the job Number of employees in the department where the job is located O*NET code number. Statement of the Job 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected

for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 422 22 of 26 36 1 Job Description for an Employment Assistant 2012 All Rights May not be copied, orreserved. duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2010 Learning. South-Western, aReserved. partReserved. of Cengage Learning. All rightsscanned, 423 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use.

permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 23 of 26 36 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 24 of 26 36 Job Descriptions (contd) Job Duties, or Essential Functions, Section

Statements of job duties that: Are arranged in order of importance that indicate the weight, or value, of each duty; weight of a duty is gauged by the percentage of time devoted to it. Stress the responsibilities that duties entail and the results to be accomplished. Indicate the tools and equipment used by the employee in performing the job. Should comply with law by listing only the essential functions of the job to be performed. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 425 25 of 26

36 Highlights in HRM 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 26 of 26 36 Job Descriptions (contd) Job Specifications Section Personal qualifications an individual must possess in order to perform the duties and responsibilities The skills required to perform the job: Education or experience, specialized training, personal traits or abilities, interpersonal skills or specific behavioral attributes, and manual dexterities. The physical demands of the job: Walking, standing, reaching, lifting, talking, and the condition and hazards of the physical work

environment 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 427 27 of 26 36 Problems with Job Descriptions 1. If they are poorly written, using vague rather than specific terms, they provide little guidance to the jobholder. 2. They are sometimes not updated as job duties or specifications change.

3. They may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success. 4. They can limit the scope of activities of the jobholder, reducing an organizations flexibility. 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 28 of 26 36 Job Design Industrial Engineering A field of study concerned with analyzing work methods and establishing time standards Job Design

An outgrowth of job analysis that improves jobs through technological and human considerations in order to enhance organization efficiency and employee job satisfaction Job design is concerned with changing, modifying, and enriching jobs in order to capture the talents of employees while improving organizational performance. Ergonomics The process of studying and designing equipment and systems that are easy and efficient for people to use and that ensure their physical well-being. 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 29 of 26 36 Basis of Job Design

2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 30 of 26 36 Behavioral Concerns Employee concerns in job design seek to include the intrinsic needs of employees. These needs encompass feelings of self-esteem, selfactualization, and social interactions. Problems with overspecialization, work simplification, and division of labor have led employers to emphasize behavioral concerns. It is believed that when employees can make meaningful contributions to their work, then their quality of life will improve. Behavioral concerns in job design efforts consist of making work more rewarding psychologically while attempting to reduce the anxieties and stresses involved in work. Three methods of job design that specifically focus on behavioral concerns are job enrichment, job characteristics,

and employee empowerment. 2007Cengage Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rights reserved. 431 2012 Learning. All Rights May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 31 of 26 36 Job Enrichment Model Job Enrichment (Herzberg) Enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties (vertical expansion) to make the work more rewarding or satisfying. Factors described as key to enriching jobs: Providing opportunities for achievement, recognition, growth, responsibility, and performance. In spite of the benefits, it must not be considered a panacea for overcoming production problems and employee discontent. They are not the solution to such problems as dissatisfaction with pay, with employee benefits or with employee security. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved.

rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 432 32 of 26 36 Job Enrichment Factors Increasing the level of difficulty and responsibility of the job Allowing employees to retain more authority and control over work outcomes Providing unit or individual job performance reports directly to employees Adding new tasks to the job that require training and growth Assigning individuals specific tasks, thus enabling them to become experts 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted

2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 433 33 of 26 36 Job Characteristics Job Characteristics Model (Hackman and Oldham) Job design theory that purports that three psychological states (experiencing meaningfulness of the work performed, responsibility for work outcomes, and knowledge of the results of the work performed) of a jobholder result in improved work performance, internal motivation, and lower absenteeism and turnover. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in

except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 434 34 of 26 36 Job Characteristics Model: Designing Jobs to Motivate Employees Job Characteristics Skill variety Task identity Task significance

Autonomy Feedback Psychological States Meaningfulness of the work performed Responsibility for work outcomes Knowledge of the results of the work performed. Job Outcomes Improved work performance Increased Internal motivation Lower absenteeism and turnover 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part,

for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 35 of 26 36 Job Characteristics (contd) 1. Skill variety: The degree to which a job entails a variety of different activities, which demand the use of a number of different skills and talents by the jobholder 2. Task identity: The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work, that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome 3. Task significance: The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people, whether in the immediate organization or in the external environment 4. Autonomy: The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out 5. Feedback: The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual being given direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned,

copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 436 36 of 26 36 Employee Empowerment Employee Empowerment Granting employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do Organizational conditions favoring empowerment: Participation and autonomy Employees must be encourages to take control of their work. Innovation and acceptance of risk-taking Employees must be encouraged to innovate. Access to information Employees must have access to wide range of information. Accountability for results Employees must be held accountable for results. Cultural openness to change Organization culture must be open and receptive to change. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved.

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 437 37 of 26 36 Designing Work for Group/Team Contributions Employee Involvement Groups (EIs) Groups of employees who meet to resolve problems or offer suggestions for organizational improvement Also known as Quality Circles Success with EIs requires: Comprehensive training for group members Recognition of the groups contributions Continuing input and encouragement by management Use of a participative/democratic leadership style 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated,

in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 438 38 of 26 36 Enlargement, Rotation, & Enrichment Job enlargement The process of adding a greater variety of tasks to a job. Job rotation a process whereby employees rotate in and out of different jobs. Job enrichment

Enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties to make the work more rewarding or satisfying 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 39 of 26 36 Empowerment, Crafting, & Engagement Employee Empowerment Granting employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do Job Crafting

A naturally occurring phenomenon whereby employees mold their tasks to fit their individual strengths, passions, and motives better Employee Engagement A situation in which workers are enthusiastic and immersed in their work to the degree that it improves the performance of their companies 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 40 of 26 36 Designing Work for Group/Team Contributions Employee Involvement Groups (EIs)

Groups of employees who meet to resolve problems or offer suggestions for organizational improvement Also known as quality circles (QCs) Success with EIs requires: Comprehensive training for group members Recognition of the groups contributions Continuing input and encouragement by management Use of a participative/democratic leadership style 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service

or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 41 of 26 36 Employee Teams Employee Teams An employee contributions technique whereby: Work functions are structured for groups rather than for individuals Team members are given discretion in matters traditionally considered management prerogatives, such as process improvements, product or service development, and individual work assignments. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain

product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 442 42 of 26 36 Benefits of Employee Teams Increased integration of individual skills Better performance (quality and quantity) solutions to unique and complex problems Reduced delivery time Reduced turnover and absenteeism Accomplishments among team members 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain

product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 443 43 of 26 36 Teamwork and Synergy Synergy Occurs when the interaction and outcome of team members is greater than the sum of their individual efforts. Synergistic team member behavior characteristics: Is supporting and inclusive Listens and clarifies Disagrees but remains nonjudgmental Engages in consensus building Is accepting of others Is focused on quality and continuous improvement 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as

in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 444 44 of 26 36 Synergistic Team Characteristics 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed

with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 45 of 26 36 Forms of Employee Teams 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 46 of 26 36 Characteristics of Successful Teams A commitment to shared goals and objectives

Motivated and energetic team members Open and honest communication Shared leadership Clear role assignments A climate of cooperation, collaboration, trust, and accountability The recognition of conflict and its positive resolution 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 47 of 26 36 Benefits of Employee Teams Increased integration of individual skills Better performance (quality and quantity) solutions to unique and complex problems Reduced delivery time Reduced turnover and absenteeism

Accomplishments among team members 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 48 of 26 36 Obstacles to Effective Team Function Overly high expectations Group compensation Training Career movement Power

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 449 49 of 26 36 Flexible Work Schedules Flextime Working hours that permit employees the option of choosing daily starting and quitting times, provided that they work a set number of hours per day or week.

Compressed Workweek Shortening the number of days in the workweek by lengthening the number of hours worked per day. Job Sharing The arrangement whereby two part-time employees perform a job that otherwise would be held by one full-time employee. Telecommuting The use of personal computers, networks, and other communications technology such as fax machines to do work in the home that is traditionally done in the workplace. 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use.

50 of 26 36 Flexible Work Schedules Flextime Working hours that permit employees the option of choosing daily starting and quitting times, provided that they work a set number of hours per day or week. All employees are required to be present during a designated core period. Flexible hours reduce absenteeism and tardiness. Employees can schedule their working hours for the time of day when they are most productive. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected

website for classroom use. 451 51 of 26 36 Core Time Flextime (everyone present) (arrival) 6 7 8 9 10 11 Lunch Sentry Insurance Companys Flextime Schedule 12 12:30 Core Time Flextime (everyone present) 1:30 (departure) 2:30 4:30 5:30 HOURS Employees arriving at 6:00 a.m. would leave at 2:30 p.m. Employees arriving at 9:00 a.m. would leave at 5:30 p.m.

2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 452 Flexible Work Schedules Compressed Workweek Shortening the number of days in the workweek by lengthening the number of hours worked per day. The four-day, forty-hour week, generally referred to as 4/10 or 4/40. Reducing weekly hours to 38 or 36 hours or scheduling 80 hours over nine days (9/80), taking one day off every other week. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected

website for classroom use. 453 53 of 26 36 Flexible Work Schedules Disdavantages Benefits Recruitment Overtime payments and retention required of employees39 by the Fair Labor Standards Act for working overwork 40 hours in onewith week. employees Coordinating employee schedules production schedules The additional stress on managers and employees, and long can bethe exhausting. workdays Accommodating leisure-time activities of employees while facilitating employee personal appointments Improvements in employee job satisfaction and morale 2012 All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Learning. Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 454 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May

not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 54 of 26 36 Flexible Work Schedules Job Sharing The arrangement whereby two part-time employees perform a job that otherwise would be held by one fulltime employee. Job sharers may work three days a week, creating an overlap day for extended face-to-face conferencing. Telecommuting The use of personal computers, networks, and other communications technology such as fax machines to do work in the home that is traditionally done in the workplace. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All Reserved. rightsMay reserved. 2012 Cengage

Learning. All Rights May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 455 55 of 26 36 Keys for Successful Telecommuting 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as

in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 56 of 26 36 Daily Quiz 4 1. A job specification is: a. a group of related activities and duties. b. the different duties and responsibilities performed by one employee. c. a statement of the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform work. d. a statement of the tasks, duties and responsibilities associated with work. 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 457 2. Employers must be able to show that job specifications: a. relate specifically to the duties of the job. b. describe fully the actual tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the job. c. are non-related to job descriptions. d. contain the criteria for evaluating the performance of the holder of the job. 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 458 3. The process of obtaining information about jobs by determining their duties, tasks, or activities is called: a. job design. b. job evaluation. c. job analysis. d. job search. 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 459

4. The statements in a job description covering job duties or essential job functions are usually arranged in: a. alphabetical order. b. numerical order. c. order of importance. d. sequential order. 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 460 5. The factors Herzberg describes as key to enriching jobs are: a. pay, promotion, pension, purpose, and perks. b. achievement, recognition, growth, responsibility, and performance of the whole job. c. safety needs, social needs, selfesteem needs, and self-actualization. d. skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 461 Key Terms critical incident method dejobbing employee empowerment employee teams ergonomics flextime industrial engineering job job analysis job characteristics model job crafting job description job design job enlargement job enrichment job rotation job specification position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) task inventory analysis telecommuting virtual team 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except

as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part, for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 62 of 26 36 Chapter 4 - Learning Outcomes Learning Outcome Statements Related Outcomes from Body of the Text 1 Explain what a job analysis is, the parts that comprise it and Are there any HR functions that are not affected by the job how the information it generates is used in conjunction with analysis process? If so, what are they? a firms HRM functions. 2 Explain how the data for a job analysis typically is collected. Answer the questions in Highlights in HRM 1 based on the job you currently hold or most recently held. Do the answers give you enough information to create a job analysis? 3 Identify and explain the various sections of job descriptions. Using your answers to the questions asked in Highlights in HRM 1, write a job description for your job or the job you most recently held. Are there

elements of the job that are not reflected in the job description? 4 Provide examples illustrating the various factors that must be taken into account when designing a job. Explain how industrial engineering and ergonomics can both clash with and complement each other in the design of jobs. 5 Discuss the various job characteristics that motivate employees. Can a firms managers control the process of job crafting? What challenges does it present for them? 6 Describe the different group techniques used to broaden a firms job functions and maximize the contributions of employees. Describe the types of teams you have worked in. Were some more successful than others? If so, why? How might what you have learned from being a team member be applied in an HR context? 7 Identify the different types of work schedules organizations are using today to motivate their employees. Name some of the jobs people do at your school. Which of the jobs do you think could effectively incorporate flexible work schedules? Which could not? 2012 Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, or duplicated, in whole or in except use except as permitted 2012Cengage Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, scanned, or duplicated, inpart, whole or infor part,

for use as in a licensein distributed a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected for classroom use. permitted a licensewith distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a website password-protected website for classroom use. 63 of 26 36

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