Manual Handling - Health and Safety for Beginners

Manual Handling - Health and Safety for Beginners

Manual Handling Ian Stone Health and Safety Advisor Aims and Objectives Provide sufficient understanding

and knowledge of Manual Handling, the risks involved and the control measures available. How? Theory

Discussion Practical Demonstrations What Is Manual Handling? Any transporting or supporting of a load by hand or bodily force This includes: Lifting, putting down, pushing,

pulling, carrying or moving This human effort can be applied indirectly What Is Manual Handling? Such as hauling on a rope Pulling a lever Applying a force to manipulate a load supported on a

Spade Fork or similar implement Manual Handling Facts Low back pain occurs with the same frequency in people with sedentary occupations as those in heavy labour Musculo-skeletal disorders arising from work

situations have an estimated annual cost in the region of 3 billion and account for 30 million lost work days each year Smokers are more likely to suffer back pain than non-smokers Manual Handling Facts Being overweight increases the likelihood of back pain

Age doesnt necessarily make any difference, bad backs affect people of all ages Poor handling techniques when you are young will contribute to problems in later life Those who have suffered from a back injury are three times more likely to suffer injury again

Reasons for Manual Handling Training Reduce lost working days through injury The Law Looking after one of the most important parts of the body

Kinds of Accident Causing Injury 1996/97 From HSE Other 12.6% Machinery 4.5%

Handling 36.5% Falls 6.9% Handling Struck by

Trips Falls Other Machinery Trips 19.1% Struck by 20.4%

Types of injuries caused by handling accidents 1996/97 From HSE Superficial 5.3% Other 3.1% Fracture

3.3% Laceration 8.8% Sprain/Strain Contusion 6.4%

Contusion Laceration Fracture Other Superficial Sprain/Strain 73.1% Sites of injuries caused by

handling 1996/97 From HSE Low er Limb 7.7% Other 3.3% Finger/Thumb 14.3%

Back Back 49.3% Rest of Torso Arm Hand/Wrist Finger/Thumb

Low er Limb Hand/Wrist 8.5% Other Arm 10.3%

Rest of Torso 6.6% The Law & Manual Handling The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (HASAWA) The Management of Health and

Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (MHSWA) The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 The Law & Manual Handling HASAWA: General duty to ensure the health,

safety and welfare at work of their employees. In particular, they have a duty to ensure the safe use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances so far as is reasonably practicable. The Law & Manual Handling

MHSWR: Regulation 3(1) requires employers to risk assess work activities. This risk assessment should identify whether there is a risk of injury from manual handling operations in the workplace. The Law & Manual

Handling The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992: These regulations are based on an ergonomic approach to preventing manual handling injuries. This involves fitting the job to the worker, taking into account anatomy, physiology and psychology.

The Law & Manual Handling Whereas previous legislation set limits on the weight of loads that can be lifted, these regulations require a number of relevant factors to be taken into consideration:

The Law & Manual Handling These are known as TILE: Task Individual Capability Load Environment Relevant Factors

Task: What is it about the way that we organise the task which might affect our health and safety? Individual Capabilities: What is it about the people who are doing the job that might affect their health and safety? Load:

What is it about the load which might affect our health and safety? Environment: What is it about the place which might affect our health and safety? The Law & Manual Handling

These regulations set out a hierarchy of measures employers should work through to prevent or reduce the likelihood of injury: Avoid manual handling Assess the task Reduce the risk Monitor the task Inform and train staff on residual risks

Avoid Manual Handling Eliminate: By design- Reduce heavy structural materials, layout of workplace to minimise manual handling operations Automation/mechanisation:- Cranes, hoists, forklift trucks, sack trolleys etc Management- Delivery of heavy articles

to point of use, storing heaviest materials at waist level Main Types of Injury Traumatic:Strain/Sprain, Slipped Disc Repetitive:Effects overtime, Arthritis

Cumulative Manual Handling Injuries Back Pain Neck Shoulders Knees Feet Wrist/Elbows Hernia

Overall Fatigue Many Others Work Related Upper Limb Disorders (WRULD) Affects shoulders, arms and wrists Main Causes: Excessive force Excessive repetition

Lack of recovery time or rest Poor static posture Stress Individual susceptibility Causes of Back Pain Not just caused by heavy work and heavy weights Can be due to:

Poor static posture Sitting too long in one position Sudden movement Vibration during handling Psychological stress INJURIES CAUSED BY MANUAL HANDLING ARE RARELY FATAL, BUT.

Can cause permanent disability The Spine Spine - 3 main functions. To protect the

spinal cord To allow movement. To support the upper body.

The Structure & Function of the Spine Provides a flexible connection between the upper and lower half of the body Encloses and protects the spinal cord Is involved in most movements of the trunk and limbs by providing key attachment points for muscles

Has a very significant function in weight bearing but only with correct posture Is very prone to injury if used incorrectly The Human Spine(backbone, spinal column) Consists of a column of small bones each called a VERTEBRA If numbered 1-33 (starting with 1

nearest the skull): 1-7 are known as CERVICAL VERTABRAE 8-19 are known as THORACIC VERTABRAE The Human Spine(backbone, spinal column) 20-24 are known as LUMBAR

VERTABRAE 25-30 Fused Vertebrae known as SACRUM 30-33 Fused Vertebrae known as COCCYX The Human Spine(backbone, spinal column)

The Spine Each muscle in the back can move 1.25 cm Multiply this movement by 33 vertebrae and this allows us to bend The body is 20mm shorter at the end of the day than at the start The Spine

Each vertebrae is separated by a gel like substance, the disc. These discs bend and stretch as we move The Spinal Cord The Spine protects the spinal cord. The spinal cord and the nervous system controls all systems in the body. As the cord descends from the brain

nerves peel away from the cord at each vertebrae, leading to all other parts of the body. Damage to the cord will result in the blockage of signals from the brain to the area affected. The Spinal Cord The Nerves

Slipped Disc A slipped disc is also called a herniated or prolapsed disc It is a bulge in the wall of one of the discs between the vertebrae pressing onto the nerve Slipped Disc

Main symptom is sciatica (pain in legs, back and buttocks) Other damage often occurs at the same time, such as muscles strain and tears Treatment: Minimum stress to the spine Correct posture Time to heal

Forces 1kg Weight close to the body exerts 10kg force onto muscles of the back (1:10) 1kg Weight held at arms length exerts 100kg force onto the muscles of the back (1:100)

How to Lift 1.Stop and Think 2.Place the feet 3.Get a Firm Grip 4.Dont Jerk

5.Move the Feet, Keep Close to the Load 6.Put down, Then adjust Lifting and Lowering Limits Guidance for tasks performed less than 30 per hour

Lifting and Lowering Reductions Stooping: 25% for 20 35% for 45 50% for 90 Lifting and Lowering

Reductions Twisting: 10% for 30 15% for 60 20% for 90 Lifting and Lowering Reductions Guidelines for tasks more than 30

per hour: Reduce 30% for once/twice per man 50% for five-eight per man 80% for 12 per man Lifting and Lowering Reductions Carrying: Max 10m without a rest

Pushing/Pulling: Max starting/stooping force 250 Newton's (25kg) 16kg for women Max force for keeping load in motion 100 Newton's (10kg) 7kg for women Seated: Max figure (close to body & between work surface and shoulder height) 5kg, 3kg for women

Handling while Seated Practical Demonstrations Manual Handling Principles Stay balanced Keeping your centre of gravity close to the loads centre of gravity

Bending from the knees Keeping the back straight, and head up Staying compact when pushing Moving the feet to turn, not the body Moving smoothly, particularly when setting loads down Important Knowledge and training alone will

not guarantee safe handling A risk assessment needs to be undertaken Avoid if possible Know your own limits Put training into action at work as well as home REMEMBER


And Finally Hurt at Work You've carefully thought out all the angles. You've done it a thousand times. It comes naturally to you. You know what you're doing, its what you've been trained to do your whole

life. Nothing could possibly go wrong, right ? Think Again! No beavers were actually injured during the generation of this PowerPoint presentation!

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