1 - Introduction and Overview of Manufacturing Manufacturing Processes - 2, IE-352 Ahmed M El-Sherbeeny, PhD Spring-2015 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF MANUFACTURING 1. 2.
3. 4. What is Manufacturing? Materials in Manufacturing Manufacturing Processes Production Systems 2 Chapter1- Part1 1- What is manufacturing? act of making something (a product) from raw materials
3 Chapter 1- Part 1 Manufacturing is Important Technologically Economically Historically 4 Chapter1- Part1 Manufacturing - Technologically Important
What is technology? Technology - the application of science to provide society and its members with those things that are needed or desired Technology provides the products that help our society and its members live better What do these products have in common? They are all manufactured Manufacturing is the essential factor that makes technology possible 5 Chapter1- Part1 Manufacturing - Economically Important
U.S. economy: % of GNP* 20% Sector Manufacturing Agriculture, minerals, etc. Manufacturing is one Construction & utilities way by which nations Service sector retail, create material wealth transportation, banking, communication, education, and
government * GNP= Gross Net Product 6 Chapter1- Part1 5% 5% 70% What is Manufacturing? The word manufacture is derived from two Latin words manus (hand) and factus (make); the combination means made by hand
Most modern manufacturing operations are accomplished by mechanized and automated equipment that is supervised by human workers 7 Chapter1- Part1 Manufacturing - Technologically Application of physical and chemical processes to alter the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a starting material to make parts or products Manufacturing also includes assembly Almost always carried out as a sequence of operations
Figure 1.1 (a) Manufacturing as a technical process 8 Chapter1- Part1 Manufacturing - Economically Manufacturing adds value to the material by changing its shape or properties, or by combining it with other materials (this is done by means of one or more processing and/or assembly operations)
Figure 1.1 (b) Manufacturing as an economic process 9 Chapter1- Part1 Manufacturing Industries Industry consists of enterprises and organizations that produce or supply goods and services Industries can be classified as: Primary industries - those that cultivate and exploit
natural resources, e.g., farming, mining Secondary industries - take the outputs of primary industries and convert them into consumer and capital goods - manufacturing is the principal activity, other examples: construction, and electric power generation Tertiary industries - service sector, e.g. banking 10 Chapter1- Part1 Manufacturing Industries - continued Manufacturing includes several industries whose products
are not covered in this book; e.g., apparel, beverages, chemicals, and food processing For our purposes, manufacturing means production of hardware Nuts and bolts, forgings, cars, airplanes, digital computers, plastic parts, and ceramic products 11 Chapter1- Part1 Production Quantity Q The quantity of products Q made by a factory has
an important influence on the way its people, facilities, and procedures are organized Annual production quantities can be classified into three ranges: Production range Annual Quantity Q Low production 1 to 100 units Medium production 100 to 10,000 units High production 10,000 to millions 12 Chapter1- Part1
Product Variety P Product variety P refers to different product types or models produced in the plant. Different products have different features They are intended for different markets Some have more parts than others When the number of product types made in the factory is high, this indicates high product variety 13 Chapter1- Part1
P versus Q in Factory Operations P Q Figure 1.2 P-Q Relationship 14 Chapter1- Part1 More About Product Variety Although P is a quantitative parameter, it is much less exact than Q because details on how much the designs differ is not captured simply by the
number of different designs Soft product variety - small differences between products, e.g., between car models made on the same production line, with many common parts among models Hard product variety - products differ substantially, e.g., between a small car and a large truck, with few common parts (if any) 15 Chapter1- Part1
Manufacturing Capability A manufacturing plant consists of processes and systems (and people, of course) designed to transform a certain limited range of materials into products of increased value. The three building blocks materials, processes, and systems are the subject of modern manufacturing. 16 Chapter1- Part1 Manufacturing capability includes:
1. Technological processing capability 2. Physical product limitations 3. Production capacity 17 Chapter1- Part1 1. Technological Processing Capability The available set of manufacturing processes in the plant (or company) Certain manufacturing processes are suited to certain materials
(By specializing in certain processes, the plant is also specializing in certain materials) Includes not only the physical processes, but also the expertise of the plant personnel Examples: A machine shop cannot roll steel A steel mill cannot build cars 18 Chapter1- Part1
2. Physical Product Limitations Given a plant with a certain set of processes, there are size and weight limitations on the parts or products that can be made in the plant Product size and weight affect: Production equipment Material handling equipment 19 Chapter1- Part1 3. Production Capacity (or plant capacity)
Defined as the maximum quantity that a plant can produce in a given time period (e.g., month or year) under assumed operating conditions Operating conditions refer to number of shifts per week, hours per shift, direct labor manning levels in the plant, and so on Capacity is measured in terms of output units, such as tons of steel or number of cars produced by the plant 20 Chapter1- Part1 2- Materials in Manufacturing
21 Chapter 1- Part 1 Materials in Manufacturing Most engineering materials can be classified into one of three basic categories: 1. Metals 2. Ceramics 3. Polymers Their chemistries and also their mechanical and physical properties are different
These differences affect the manufacturing processes that can be used to produce products from them 22 Chapter1- Part1 1. Metals Usually alloys, which are composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is metallic Two basic groups: Ferrous metals - based on iron, comprises about 75% of metal tonnage in the world: Steel = FeC alloy (0.02 to 2.11% C)
Cast iron = Fe-C alloy (2% to 4% C) Nonferrous metals - all other metallic elements and their alloys: aluminum, copper, magnesium, nickel, silver, tin, titanium, etc. 23 Chapter1- Part1 2. Ceramics Compounds containing metallic (or semi-metallic) and nonmetallic elements. Typical nonmetallic elements are oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon For processing, ceramics divide into:
1. Crystalline ceramics includes: Traditional ceramics, such as clay (hydrous aluminum silicates) Modern ceramics, such as alumina (Al2O3) 2. Glasses mostly based on silica (SiO2) 24 Chapter1- Part1
3. Polymers Compound formed of repeating structural units called mers, whose atoms share electrons to form very large molecules 25 Chapter1- Part1 3- Polymers Three categories: 1. Thermoplastic polymers - can be subjected to multiple heating and cooling cycles without altering molecular structure
2. Thermosetting polymers - molecules chemically transform (cure) into a rigid structure cannot be reheated 3. Elastomers - shows significant elastic behavior 26 Chapter1- Part1 In addition- Composites Nonhomogeneous mixtures of the other three basic types rather than a unique category
Figure 1.3 Venn diagram of three basic material types plus composites 27 Chapter1- Part1 Composites Material consisting of two or more phases that are processed separately and then bonded together to achieve properties superior to its constituents
Phase - homogeneous mass of material, such as grains of identical unit cell structure in a solid metal Usual structure consists of particles or fibers of one phase mixed in a second phase Properties depend on components, physical shapes of components, and the way they are combined to form the final material 28 Chapter1- Part1
1. Processing operations transform a work material from one state of completion to a more advanced state 2. Operations that change the geometry, properties, or appearance of the starting material Assembly operations - join two or more components to create a new entity 31
Chapter1- Part2 Figure 1.4 Classification of manufacturing processes A 1 B C D 2 32
Chapter1- Part2 Processing Operations Click to see figure 1-4 again Alters a materials shape, physical properties, or appearance in order to add value Three categories of processing operations: 1. Shaping operations - alter the geometry of the starting work material
2. Propertyenhancing operations improve physical properties without changing shape 3. Surface processing operations - to clean, treat, coat, or deposit material on exterior surface of the work 33 Chapter1- Part2 A Shaping Processes Four Categories 1.
Solidification processes - starting material is a heated liquid or semifluid 2. Particulate processing - starting material consists of powders 3. Deformation processes - starting material is a ductile solid (commonly metal) 4.
Material removal processes - starting material is a ductile or brittle solid 34 Chapter1- Part2 A 1- Solidification Processes Starting material is heated sufficiently to transform it into a liquid or highly plastic state Examples: metal casting, plastic molding 35
Chapter1- Part2 A 2- Particulate Processing Starting materials are powders of metals or ceramics Usually involves pressing and sintering, in which powders are first compressed and then heated to bond the individual particles Steps: Pressing and sintering Sintering is a method for making objects from powder, by heating the
material (below its melting point) until its particles adhere to each other. 36 Chapter1- Part2 A 3- Deformation Processes Starting workpart is shaped by application of forces that exceed the yield strength of the material Examples: (a) forging, (b) extrusion A press machine performs extrusion.
37 Chapter1- Part2 A 4- Material Removal Processes Excess material removed from the starting piece so what remains is the desired geometry Examples: machining such as turning, drilling, and milling; also grinding and nontraditional processes 38
Chapter1- Part2 A Waste in Shaping Processes Desirable to minimize waste in part shaping Material removal processes are wasteful in unit operations, simply by the way they work Most casting, molding, and particulate processing operations waste little material Terminology for minimum waste processes: Net shape processes - when most of the starting material is used and no subsequent machining is required
Near net shape processes - when Click to see figure 1-4 again minimum amount of machining is required 39 Chapter1- Part2 B PropertyEnhancing Processes Performed to improve mechanical or physical properties of work material Part shape is not altered, except unintentionally Example: unintentional warping of a heat treated
part Examples: Heat treatment of metals and glasses Sintering of powdered metals and ceramics Click to see figure 1-4 again 40 Chapter1- Part2 C Surface Processing Operations
Cleaning - chemical and mechanical processes to remove dirt, oil, and other contaminants from the surface Surface treatments - mechanical working such as sand blasting, and physical processes like diffusion Coating and thin film deposition - coating exterior surface of the workpart
Click to see figure 1-4 again 41 Chapter1- Part2 D Assembly Operations Two or more separate parts are joined to form a new entity Types of assembly operations: 1. Joining processes create a permanent joint
Welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding 2. Mechanical assembly fastening by mechanical methods Threaded fasteners (screws, bolts and nuts); press fitting, expansion fits 42 Chapter1- Part2 Production Systems
43 Chapter1- Part2 Production Systems People, equipment, and procedures used for the combination of materials and processes that constitute a firm's manufacturing operations A manufacturing firm must have systems and procedures to efficiently accomplish its type of production Two categories of production systems: 1. Production facilities
2. Manufacturing support systems Both categories include people (people make the systems work) 44 Chapter1- Part2 Production systems Production systems Manufacturing support systems Production facilities Low production: Job shop
Medium production: Batch production and cellular manufacturing High production: quantity production and flow line production Manufacturing engineering Production planning and control Quality control 45 Chapter1- Part2 1- Production Facilities
The factory, production equipment, and material handling systems Production facilities "touch" the product Includes the way the equipment is arranged in the factory the plant layout Equipment usually organized into logical groupings, called manufacturing systems Examples: Automated production line Machine cell consisting of an industrial robot and two machine tools 46 Chapter1- Part2
Facilities versus Product Quantities A company designs its manufacturing systems and organizes its factories to serve the particular mission of each plant Certain types of production facilities are recognized as the most appropriate for a given type of manufacturing: 1. Low production 1 to 100 2. Medium production 100 to 10,000 3. High production 10,000 to >1,000,000
Different facilities are required for each of the three quantity ranges 47 Chapter1- Part2 Low Production Job shop is the term used for this type of production facility A job shop makes low quantities of specialized and customized products Products are typically complex, e.g., space capsules, prototype aircraft, special machinery
48 Equipment in a job shop is general purpose Labor force is highly skilled Designed for maximum
flexibility Chapter1- Part2 Medium Production Two different types of facilities, depending on product variety: Batch production Suited to hard product variety Setups required between batches Cellular manufacturing Suited to soft product variety Worker cells organized to process parts without setups between different part
styles 49 Chapter1- Part2 High Production Often referred to as mass production High demand for product Manufacturing system dedicated to the production of that product
Two categories of mass production: 1. Quantity production 2. Flow line production 50 Chapter1- Part2 Quantity Production Mass production of single parts on single machine or small numbers of machines Typically involves standard machines equipped with special tooling Equipment is dedicated full-time to the
production of one part or product type Typical layouts used in quantity production are process layout and cellular layout 51 Chapter1- Part2 Flow Line Production Multiple machines or workstations arranged in sequence, e.g., production lines Product is complex Requires multiple processing and/or assembly operations Work units are physically moved through the
sequence to complete the product Workstations and equipment are designed specifically for the product to maximize efficiency 52 Chapter1- Part2 2- Manufacturing Support Systems A company must organize itself to design the processes and equipment, plan and control production, and satisfy product quality requirements Accomplished by manufacturing support systems
people and procedures by which a company manages its production operations Typical departments: 1. Manufacturing engineering 2. Production planning and control 3. Quality control Chapter1- Part2 53 Overview of Major Topics Figure 1.10 Overview of production system and major topics in
Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing. 54 Chapter1- Part2 A spectacular scene in steelmaking is charging of a basic oxygen furnace, in which molten pig iron produced in a blast furnace is poured into the BOF (Basic Oxygen Furnace). Temperatures are around 1650C (3000 F). 55 Chapter1- Part2 A machining cell consisting of two horizontal machining centers supplied by an in-line pallet shuttle (photo courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron).
56 Chapter1- Part2 A robotic arm performs unloading and loading operation in a turning center using a dual gripper (photo courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron). 57 Chapter1- Part2
Metal chips fly in a high speed turning operation performed on a computer numerical control turning center (photo courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron). 58 Chapter1- Part2 Photomicrograph of the cross section of multiple coatings of titanium nitride and aluminum oxide on a cemented carbide substrate (photo courtesy of Kennametal Inc.).
59 Chapter1- Part2 A batch of silicon wafers enters a furnace heated to 1000C (1800F) during fabrication of integrated circuits under clean room conditions (photo courtesy of Intel Corporation). 60 Chapter1- Part2 Two welders perform arc welding on a large steel
pipe section (photo courtesy of Lincoln Electric Company). 61 Chapter1- Part2 Automated dispensing of adhesive onto component parts prior to assembly (photo courtesy of EFD, Inc.). 62
Chapter1- Part2 Assembly workers on an engine assembly line (photo courtesy of Ford Motor Company). 63 Chapter1- Part2 Assembly operations on the Boeing 777 (photo courtesy of Boeing Commercial Airplane Co.).
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