Mass Movements, Wind and Glaciers

Mass Movements, Wind and Glaciers

Mass Movements, Wind and Glaciers Chapter 8 Notes Mass Movement. What factors determine how fast you go down a

waterslide? Mass Movement: Changing the Landscape Definition: Movement of soil and rock downslope due to gravity All mass movements occur on slopes (i.e.

almost everywhere) Can be subtle (creep) or catastrophic (landslide) and everything in between Range in size from small sediment to large boulders Factors that influence mass movement

Climate Composition of the earth material Weight of the material Friction Triggers (an earthquake, for example) Water/rainfall: increases weight and decreases friction

Types of Mass Movements Creep Solifluction (permafrost) Flows

Slides Slumps Falls Examples of Mass Movement Creep

Slump Note the curved crescent shape at the top of the slump. Examples of Mass Movement Flows

Slides lahar Examples of Mass Movement Avalanche

Falls Wind Erosion Moving air can transport sediment Suspension Saltation (bouncing motion of sand particles)

Precipitation limits wind erosion: Precipitation promotes plant growth that anchors sediment Moist soil is not carried as easily by wind Dust Bowl: Great Plains 1930s

Wind Erosion and Transport Abrasion Deflation Desert pavement

Wind Deposition When wind velocity decreases, particles are deposited. Dunes: piles of windblown sand Windward side is not as steep as the leeward side Wind causes dunes to move (migrate)

Loess: Thick windblown silt deposits. Loess soils are very fertile due to abundant nutrients and minerals. Wind Deposition Loess

Dunes Glaciers Large moving masses of ice Currently, 10% of

Earths surface is covered by glaciers Can be Valley glaciers (alpine glaciers) Continental glaciers

Valley Glaciers Turns V-shaped river valleys into U-shaped glacial valleys Glacial Erosion U-shaped valley with hanging stream

Horn Glacial Erosion Cirque Arte

Formation of a Cirque Glacial Deposition Glacial Deposition Drumlin

Glaciers in Indiana

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