Maternal Role Attainment Theory by Ramona T. Mercer

Maternal Role Attainment Theory by Ramona T. Mercer

Maternal Role Attainment Theory by Ramona T. Mercer Monique Veney NURS 620 Theoretical Foundations of Nursing January 22, 2015 Maternal Role Attainment Theory by Ramona T.Monique Mercer Veney NURS 620 Theoretical Foundations of Nursing January 22, 2015 Ramona T. Mercer 1929-Born

1950- Diploma graduate St. Margarets School of Nursing (Montgomery, Alabama) 1962- Bachelors degree in Nursing (University of New Mexico) 1964- Masters degree (Emory University) 1975- Ph.D. from University of Pittsburgh

1975- Various educational and clinical pursuits Ramona T. Mercer Career Focus Most of career spent in Maternal-Child Health nursing Early research focused on needs of breastfeeding mothers, teenage mothers, postpartum depression, and mothers of infants with congenital defects Later research focused on maternal role, familial relationships and antepartum stress

Mercers Maternal Role Attainment (MRA) Theory Based on theoretical work of Mercers mentor Reva Rubin (maternal role attainment) Also includes ideas from developmental theorists such as G.H. Mead (1934), R. Turner (1978), Thornton & Nardi (1975) & Burr, Leigh, and Constantine (1957) Utilizes concepts from Bronfenbrenners (1979)

Ecological Systems theory to identify environmental influences on maternal role Maternal Role Attainment (MRA) Theory Maternal Role Attainment (MRA) Theory Major Concepts MATERNAL ROLE ATTAINMENT - an interactional and developmental process occurring over a period of time, during which the mother becomes attached to her infant, acquires competence in the care-taking tasks involved in the role, and expresses pleasure and gratification in the role. - The movement to the personal state in which the mother experiences a sense of harmony, confidence, and competence in how she performs the role is the end point of maternal role attainment maternal identity ATTACHMENT a component of the parental role and identity. Attachment is viewed as a process in which an enduring

affectional and emotional commitment to an individual is formed. FAMILY a dynamic system which includes subsystems individuals (mother, father, fetus/infant) and dyads (motherfather, mother-fetus/infant, and father- fetus/infant) within the overall family system. FAMILY FUNCTIONING the individuals view of the activities and relationships between the family and its subsystems and broader social units.. INFANT TEMPERAMENT an easy versus a difficult temperament, it is related to whether the infant sends hard-toread cues, leading to feelings of incompetence and frustration in the mother. ROLE STRAIN - the conflict and difficulty felt by the women in fulfilling the maternal role obligation.

SELF-ESTEEM an individuals perception of how others view ones and self-acceptance of the perception SELFCONCEPT (SELF-REGARD) The overall perception of self that includes self-satisfaction, self-acceptance, selfesteem, and congruence of discrepancy between self and ideal self. Maternal Role Attainment (MRA) Theory Major Assumptions A relatively stable core self, determines how a mother defines and perceives events The mother's developmental level and innate personality characteristics influence her behavioral responses.

The mother's role partner, her infant, will reflect the mother's competence in the mothering role The infant is considered an active partner in the maternal roletaking process The father or mother's intimate partner contributes to role attainment in a way that can't be duplicated by any other persons. Maternal identity develops with maternal attachment

Maternal Role Attainment (MRA) Theory in Nursing Practice Theory has a direct effect on the way Maternal-Child health nursing is practiced in health care facilities o o Acts as a framework for the nursing process (assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation) Immediate bonding opportunities after childbirth Maternal Role Attainment (MRA) Theory in Nursing Research Theory has been utilized as a framework in the formation of other nursing theories o

Revised Model of MRA >>>Becoming a Mother (Mercer 2004) o Basis for research on mothering role in adolescents, Mothers of premature infants and mothers w/ post partum depression Maternal Role Attainment (MRA) Theory in Nursing Education Theory widely accepted and utilized o Taught in nursing school theory courses as well as MaternalChild and Pediatric nursing o Accepted among other disciplines such as psychology and

sociology MRA Literature Review Copeland & Harbaugh(2004) Researches differences in how single and mothers undertake the mothering role married 1st time Fenwick, Barclay & Schmied (2008) Implications for nursing practice in dealing with of mothering needs of infants in NICUs (neonatal intensive care units) or SCNs (special care

nurseries) References Alligood, M. R., & Tomey, A. M. (2010). Chapter 27: Ramona T. Mercer. In Nursing theorists and their work (7th ed., pp. 581-598). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier. Copeland, D. B., & Harbaugh, B. L. (2004, Fall). Transition of maternal competence of married and single mothers in early parenthood. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 13, 3-9. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1595220/

Fenwick, J. Barclay, L. & Schmied, V. (2008). Craving closeness: A grounded theory analysis of women's experiences of mothering in the Special Care Nursery. Women and Birth, 21, 7185.

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