# Math 2311-06

MATH 2311 Section 5.6 Relations in Categorical Data A two-way table organizes the data for two categorical variables. The totals of each row and column are considered marginal distributions because they appear in the margins of the table. Example:

The following two-way table describes the preferences in movies and pizza toppings for a random sample of 100 people. Enter the marginal distributions in the table. Draw a Bar Chart to Display the Marginal Distribution of Pizza Topping Preference Using Excel would be the best option to do this.

Rstudio will work, but the syntax is very difficult to use. Draw a Bar Chart to Display the Marginal Distribution of Pizza Topping Preference What percent of our sample likes Gone with the Wind? What percent of pepperoni lovers like Star

Wars? Draw a Bar Chart to Display the Marginal Distribution of Pizza Topping Preference A conditional distribution is made up of the percentages that satisfy a given condition.

Popper 18: Compare the conditional distributions of movie preference for hamburger lovers and mushroom lovers. Back up your description with percentages. 1. What percent of hamburger lovers like Star Wars? a. 23% b. 36% c. 68% d. 15% 2. What percent of hamburger lovers like Jurassic Park? a. 23% b. 12% c. 5% d. 35% 3. What percent of mushroom lovers like Gone with the Wind?

a. 59% b. 37% c. 2% d. 22% Simpsons Paradox Always be careful if combining data to make a comparison. Simpsons Paradox is the reversal of the direction of a comparison or an association when data from several groups are combined to form a single group.

In a 1991 study by Radelet and Pierce of the effect of race on death-penalty sentences, the following table was obtained tabulating the death-penalty sentences (Death) and non-death-penalty sentences (No death) in murder convictions in the state of Florida. Now, we consider the very same data, except that we stratify according to the race of the victim of the murder. Below is the table.

Here we see that when considering the cases involving Caucasian victims separately from the cases involving African-American victims, that the African-American defendants are more likely than Caucasian ones to receive the death penalty in both instances (22.9% vs 11.3% in the first case and 2.8% This0.0% is adapted from Subsection

of A. Agresti (2002), Categorical Data Analysis, 2nd ed., Wiley, pp. 48-51. vs. in the second 2.3.2 case).

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