Measures of corruption

Measures of corruption

Measures of corruption Corruption Is defined as the use of public authority or resources for personal or political gain Types of corruption

Petty corruption Grand corruption Systemic corruption Petty Corruption Petty corruption refers to distortions in implementing laws, policies and regulations.

In its most common form, civil servants demand small bribes, from the public to receive a service to which they are entitled, receive a service to which they are not entitled, or simply to speed up a bureaucratic procedure.

Systemic corruption Systemic corruption, which is also defined as either endemic or environmental corruption, occurs when corrupt practices are common, consuetudinary type of behavior Grand Corruption

Grand corruption occurs at the higher level of government whenever elected officials change national policies to favor their own interests even at the cost of hurting the interests of the citizens Common under dictatorial rule

Causes of corruption

Socio-economic underdevelopment Ethnic fragmentation Lack of proper institutionalization Lack of accountability Role of state in the market Are all known to create a fertile soil for

corruption Costs of corruption Corruption is costly It erodes the legitimacy of the state and of the political institutions It has a destabilizing effect on the political

system It deters foreign investments It slows down economic growth It is an obstacle for socioeconomic development Corruption and wealth

Corruption and life expectancy Corruption and infant mortality Preliminary conclusion No matter how you measure socio-economic development (life expectancy, infant mortality,

gni per capita,), the result is always that corruption is costly as it is an obstacle for development Measures To analyze the costs of corruption To track governments success in curbing

corruption it is necessary to have a measure of corruption that can be used to track corruption over time Measures-2 There are 2 broad types of measures Corruption perception measures (Global

Integrity, Worldwide Governance Indicators, Transparency international, Global Competitiveness Report, BEEPS, WBES) Objective, output-based measures of corruption (Goldman and Picci, 2005) objective measures

Goel and Nelson (1998) Measure corruption on the basis of the number of convictions of public officials for corrupt practices Golden and Picci (2005)

This method measures corruption as the difference between the amount of public money spent for capital stock and the quantity of physical infrastructure. This method assumes that higher levels of corruption are associated with larger differences between the amount of public expenditures and

existing physical infrastructure. subjective measures Worldwide governance indicators Aggregates into a single measure the information from four types of sources

1) surveys of households and firms such as Gallup World Poll, Afrobarometer, and the Global Competitiveness Report; 2) Commercial Business Information Providers such as Political Risk Services, Economist Intelligence Unit, 3) NGOs such as Freedom House and Global Integrity 4) Public Sector Organizations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development transition reports and the

World Banks CPIA (Country Policy and Institutional Assessment) assessments. Worldwide governance indicators-2 Specifically WGI aggregates the estimates from 32 data sources (belonging to the four mentioned types)

4 of which were Commercial Business Information Providers, 8 were Public Sector Organizations, 9 were surveys of Households and Firms 11 were NGOs Worldwide governance indicators-3

WGI is expressed in a 5 point scale ranging from -2.5 to + 2.5 Negative values indicate high corruption, while positive values indicate low corruption CPI CPI is also an aggregate measure of corruption

It relies upon 12 data sources CPI-2 African Development Bank Governance Ratings, Bertelsmann Foundation Sustainable Governance Indicators, Bertelsmann Foundation Transformation Index, Economist Intelligence Unit Country Risk Ratings, Freedom

House Nations in Transit, Global Insight Country Risk Ratings, IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook, Political and Economic Risk Consultancy Asian Intelligence, Political Risk Services International Country Risk Guide, World Bank - Country Policy and Institutional Assessment, World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey (EOS) and the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index

CPI-3 Used to be expressed in a 10 point scale Now expressed in a 100 point scale, where low values indicate high corruption and high values indicate low corruption

WBES/BEEPS World Business Environment Survey (WBES), later replaced by the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS), asked respondents to say whether and how much they paid in bribes. These data were collected at the micro (firm)

level, could be aggregated to generate national averages, and provided some evidence about one facet of corruption (bribery). Global Competitiveness Provides information on 4 issues/dimension related to corruption

Ethics and corruption Favoritism in decisions by the government Diversion of public funds Irregular payments and bribes Global competitiveness-2 Values for each country are expressed in a 1-7

scale where 7 means best

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