Measuring Behaviour Learning Outcomes Background Define animal behaviour and discuss what causes it. Understand why we study animal behaviour. Measuring Behaviour Understand how we study animal behaviour (research methods). Create and categorise a portion of an ethogram of primate behaviours. Create an activity budget from a video of primate behaviour. Understand the concepts of latency, frequency and duration. Use various techniques to record primate behaviour (scan/focal). Recognise the problems of anthropomorphism in a behaviour study. Student Activity What is Animal Behaviour?
Animal behaviour - Is simply what the animal is doing, or how they are reacting. Ethology Is the study of animal behaviour. Ethos character ology the study of What causes animal behaviour? To some extent all behaviours are genetic (i.e. a monkey will act like a monkey, and a bird a bird) It is also a response to external/internal environments. External environment e.g. rain, heat, cold, other animals, etc. Internal environment e.g. hormones, parasites.
disease, External Environment Factor/Stimuli Behaviour response Cold Huddle together Rain Seek shelter Predator seen
Hide Internal Environment Factor/Stimuli Behaviour response Hormones Seek a mate Disease Rest Why Study Animal Behaviour? Analysing animal behaviour informs
us about the evolution of how we think, act and interact . Understand why animals behave the way they do. Understand when an animal has a need and thus use this information to make changes for the animals welfare. How to Study Behaviour 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
8. 9. Formulate initial questions and make preliminary observations. Formulate hypotheses and make predictions. Choose behavioural measures and research design (methods). Define each measure Select the appropriate recording methods. Practice the recording methods Collect the data Analyse the data Draw some conclusions and return to step 1. Studying a Mixed Species Exhibit
Capuchin Monkeys Squirrel Monkeys Taxonomy Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Primate, Cebidae Cebus apella or Sapajus apella Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Primate, Cebidae Saimiri sciureus Size 1.3 4.8 kg, with males being larger
than females. 0.55- 1.25kg, males and females similar in weight. South American forests South American forests Mainly fruits and invertebrates, but also eat small animals and plants. Mainly insects and fruits but also eat other parts of plants, and various small animals. Habitat &
Range Diet Capuchin Monkeys Squirrel Monkeys Social Structure Group size ranges from 6-30. One alpha male and female and a variety of dominant-submissive interactions throughout the rest of the group. No linear hierarchy exists. Group size 30-70. There are more adult
females in a group than adult males. There is an alpha male and female and a variety of dominant-submissive interactions throughout the rest of the group. No linear hierarchy exists. Ecological Niche Forest living insectivore-frugivores that are arboreal and diurnal. They are also prey for cats, such as jaguars, birds of prey and crocodiles. Forest living insectivore-frugivores that are arboreal and diurnal. They are also prey for cats, such as jaguars, birds of prey and crocodiles.
Communication Capuchin monkeys have a wide range of vocalisations, but they also communicate with a variety of visual signals through facial expression and body language. Squirrel monkeys scream and give high pitched peep and twitter calls, they also communicate through facial expression and body language. Capuchin Communication http://www.living-links.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Ce busSIGNteachers.pdf
Squirrel Monkey Communication http://www.living-links.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/SaimiriSIG Nteachers.pdf 1. Formulate initial questions and make preliminary observations How do the primates react to living in a mixed species group? How does living in a mixed group effect their behaviour and welfare? Do they interact in a positive, negative or neutral way? When and where should I study the primates? How many primates can I study? Study Site
5m Study Subjects WEST EAST Capuchins Sq. monkeys Capuchins Sq. monkeys 3 adult females
2 young males 1 male infant 1 infant sex unknown 1 adult male 3 young males 7 adult females 1 young female 3 male infants 1 alpha male 3 younger males 1 adult female 1 alpha male
6 adult females 2 male infants 1 female infant Total = 7 Total = 15 Total = 5 Total = 10 3.3.1 7.7.0 4.1.0
3.7.0 2. Formulate Hypotheses 1. Squirrel monkeys will choose to associate with capuchins, however the capuchins will be dominant over the squirrel monkeys. 2. A change in the enclosure design will have a positive effect on the relationship between the two species. 3. Choose behavioural measures and research design (methods) Hypothesis 1 - Squirrel monkeys will choose to associate with capuchins, however the capuchins will be dominant
over the squirrel monkeys. Behavioural measure Record species associations, and the direction of the associations. 3. Choose behavioural measures and research design (methods) Hypothesis 2 - A change in the enclosure design will have a positive effect on the relationship between the two species. Behavioural measure Record species interactions before and after the change. 4. Define each measure Ethogram Ethogram - A comprehensive list,
inventory, or description of all the behaviours of an organism. A complete ethogram of all the behaviour for one species is very long and so we will be creating portions of ethograms. 4. Define each measure (Behaviour Categories and Definitions) Say what you see, not what you think ! Behaviour Category Definition Aggression Chasing, biting, hitting or screaming at another monkey. May include threat displays, such as shaking branches or lunging at another. Play
One monkey chases or wrestles with another, in a non-aggressive manner. Resting alone Lying or sitting away from the group Resting together Lying or sitting in contact with another monkey Feeding Searching for/manipulating/ingesting food Moving alone
Locomoting across the ground or in the trees without another monkey. Moving together Locomoting across the ground or in the trees with another monkey. Design Part of an Ethogram SCREEN SHOT ONLY Living Links website http://www.living-links.org/resources/materials-for-teachers/measuringbehaviour-lesson-plan / Vimeo - http://vimeo.com/channels/livinglinks/45906210 5. Select the appropriate recording methods
Focal Observing one individual for a specified amount of time and recording their behaviour. Example Use- A study looking at the number of aggressive interactions by a specified individual. Scan A group of individuals is scanned at regular intervals and the behaviour of each one is recorded. Example Use A study looking at enclosure use by an entire group of animals. What kind of data do you want to record? State Behaviours that occur for an extended duration.
Events Behaviors that are short in duration and generally counted rather than timed Examples - Lying, walking, foraging, sleeping. Examples - Fighting, yawning, sneezing, vocalising. Lets Try a Focal SCREEN SHOT ONLY Living Links website - http
://www.living-links.org/resources/materials-for-teachers/measuring-behavio ur-lesson-plan / Lets Try a Scan SCREEN SHOT ONLY Living Links website - http ://www.living-links.org/resources/materials-for-teachers/measuring-be haviour-lesson-plan /Vimeo - http://vimeo.com/45246079 5. Select the appropriate recording methods Ad libitum Sampling Observer records key behaviours of interest whenever they occur.
Continuous Sampling All occurrences of behaviour are recorded. When they start and when they stop. Point/Instantaneous Time Sampling Behaviour is sampled periodically at regular intervals. Which recording methods were used in Living together? Focal Continuous Scan
Instantaneous Ad lib Latency, frequency & duration Latency Is the time (sec, min, hrs) from a specific event to the start of a behaviour. Frequency - the number of times a behaviour is displayed per unit of time. Duration The length of time that a single behaviour lasts. 6. Practice the recording methods Capuchin and chimpanzee videos Extra challenge Live Squirrel Monkey Cam
http://www.edinburghzoo.org.uk/monkeycam.html or Live Snow Monkey Cam http://www.highlandwildlifepark.org/snow-monkey-webcam 7. Collect the Data Example Data sheet EAST Wing Scan Sampling Check Sheet 5 Capuchins (C) , 10 Squirrel Monkeys (S) Time: Date: Weather: Behaviour/ time Resting
Moving Feeding Other Cap Squir Cap Cap Cap
Start | ||| || || 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 25 min Squir
| | Squir || Squir || Cap nearest neighbour Cap Squir Squir nearest
neighbour Cap Squir Out of View || |||| ||| ||| | || Cap Squir
Using your behaviour categories to group data for analysis Type of Interaction Behaviour Definition Aggression Chasing, biting, hitting or screaming at another monkey. May include threat displays, such as shaking branches or lunging at another. _
Play One monkey chases or wrestles with another, in a nonaggressive manner. + Resting alone Lying or sitting away from the group Feeding Searching for/manipulating/ingesting food Moving alone
Locomoting across the ground or in the trees without another monkey. N + N N Moving together Locomoting across the ground or in the trees with another monkey in non-aggressive manner. + Resting together Lying or sitting in contact with another monkey
8. Analyse the data Table - Frequency of directions of interactions between the two species Direction Negative Positive Neutral Total Capuchin to Squirrel Monkey 14 10 13
37 Capuchin to Squirrel monkey then reversed 2 8 10 20 Squirrel monkey to capuchin 13
4 4 21 Squirrel monkey to capuchin then reversed 4 9 6 19
In 39 hrs of mixed species observations 97 interspecific interactions were recorded. Enclosure Change Analysis 7&8. Collect and Analyse the data Collect data and create a simple activity budget for the group of chimps. Or Collect the data and create a simple activity budget for the capuchin Popeye. Or Collect the data and create a simple activity budget from the design an ethogram video.
Activity Budget Activity Budget is a graph or table that shows how much time an animal spends in various activities such as, sleeping, eating, climbing etc. 9. Draw conclusions Hypothesis 1 - Squirrel monkeys will choose to associate with capuchins, however the capuchins will be dominant over the squirrel monkeys. Correct Squirrel monkeys actively choose to associate with capuchins. Correct - Capuchins did appear to be the dominant of the two species (in most cases). Conclusions Hypothesis 2 - A change in the enclosure
design will have a positive effect on the relationship between the two species. Correct The frequency of interaction between the species stayed the same however the proportion of positive interactions increased and negative ones decreased. Anthropomorphism Anthropomorphism Applying human qualities (emotions or actions) to nonhuman animals or things. Eg. The wind tried to strip the cloak off the man Why would anthropomorphism be bad in an animal behaviour study? Play/Content Face
Fear Grin Happy Grin Sad Face The Living Together Project Scientist SCREEN SHOT ONLY Living Links website - http://www.living-links.org/resources/materialsfor-teachers/measuring-behaviour-lesson-plan/ Vimeo - http://vimeo.com/7862457 Acknowledgements Alaina Macri RZSS Dr Mark Bowler and Prof Andy Whiten St. Andrews University
Prof Hannah Buchanan-Smith Stirling University Wellcome Trust Kenny Hurst - photographer The Zoo keepers at Edinburgh Zoo For more resources visit: http://www.living-links.org/resources and http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk
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