Memory and Learning

Memory and Learning

MEMORY AND LEARNING HCC WEST LOOP MR. ALAS, MS PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE Psychology changed dramatically during the early 20th-century as another school of thought known as behaviorism rose to dominance.

Behaviorism was a major change from previous theoretical perspectives, rejecting the emphasis on both the conscious and unconscious mind. BEHAVIORISM Behavioral approach was the primary paradigm in psychology between 1920s to 1950 : Based on a number of underlying

assumptions regarding methodology and behavioral analysis Behaviorism strove to make psychology a more scientific discipline by focusing purely on observable behavior. Psychology should be

seen as a science Psychology should be seen as a science Theories need to be supported by empirical data obtained through careful and controlled observation and measurement of behavior. People have no free will a persons environment determines their behavior There is little difference between the learning that takes place in humans and that in other animals. Therefore research can be carried out on animals

as well as humans. PSYCHOLOGY BACKGROUND Behavior is the result of stimulus response all behavior, no matter how complex, can be reduced to a simple stimulus response association

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING A process of behavior modification by which: a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus has been repeatedly presented along

with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response. LEARNING Behavior is the result of stimulus response All behavior, no matter how complex, can be reduced to a

simple stimulus response association. IVAN PAVLOV (18491936) Pavlov demonstrated that this learning process could be used to make an association between and environmental

stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus Demonstrated behaviors could be learned via conditioned associations PHYSIOLOGICAL APPARATUS


hBfnXACsOI#action=share http:// rPQE Abbreviations

US UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS A stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning CS

CONDITIONED STIMULUS A neutral stimulus that when paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) elicits a similar response Abbreviations UR

UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE Automatic response elicited by the unconditioned stimulus CR CONDITIONED RESPONSE

A response that is learned by pairing the originally neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) CONVERSION OF UCS TO CR Pavlovian (or classical) conditioning builds on reflexes: We begin with an unconditioned

stimulus and an unconditioned response -- a reflex! We then associate a neutral stimulus with the reflex by presenting it with the unconditioned stimulus. Over a number of repetitions, the neutral stimulus by itself will elicit the response! At this point, the neutral stimulus is renamed the conditioned stimulus, and the response is called the conditioned response.

EXAMPLE OF CLASSICAL CONDITINING ACQUISITION TERMS The food is an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and the salivation is the unconditioned response (UCR). The bell is a neutral stimulus until the dog learns to associate the bell with food.

Then the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) which produces the conditioned response (CR) of salivation after repeated pairings between the bell and food. The Unconditioned Response (UCR)

The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. In our example, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response. The Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus.

The Conditioned Stimulus (CS) The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. In our earlier example, suppose that when you

smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually trigger the conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the whistle is the conditioned stimulus. The Conditioned Response

(CR) The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. In our example, the conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle.

Extinction When the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear. In classical conditioning, this happens when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus. For example, if the smell of food (the unconditioned stimulus) had been paired with the sound of a whistle (the conditioned stimulus), it would eventually come to evoke

the conditioned response of hunger. However, if the unconditioned stimulus (the smell of food) were no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus (the whistle), eventually the conditioned response (hunger) would disappear. Generalization Stimulus Generalization is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke

similar responses after the response has been conditioned. For example, if a child has been conditioned to fear a stuffed white rabbit, the child will exhibit fear of objects similar to the conditioned stimulus Acquisition Acquisition is the initial stage of learning when

a response is first established and gradually strengthened. For example, imagine that you are conditioning a dog to salivate in response to the sound of a bell. You repeatedly pair the presentation of food with the sound of the bell. You can say the response has been acquired as soon as the dog begins to salivate in response to the bell tone. Once the response has been acquired, you can

gradually reinforce the salivation response to make sure the behavior is well learned. Discrimination Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus. For example, if a bell tone were the

conditioned stimulus, discrimination would involve being able to tell the difference between the bell tone and other similar sounds Generalization Occurs when there is a small difference in the presented stimulus and the original conditioned stimulus.

If Pavlovs dog heard a bell of a similar tone, the dog would still salivate. Spontaneous recovery Reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response. If the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer

associated, extinction will occur very rapidly after a spontaneous recovery. JOHN WATSON LITTLE ALBERT EXPERIMENT LITTLE ALBERT "Little Albert" was 11 months old. He was described as a remarkably stable infant who rarely displayed fear of anything. He was not afraid of animals, including the

white laboratory rat. He was, however, afraid of loud noises (US). Watson and Rayner decided to take advantage of his natural fear response (UR) to loud noises; they wanted to see whether they could condition Little Albert to fear the white laboratory rat (initially, a neutral stimulus), by pairing it with the presentation of a loud noise (US). Watson and Rayner produced the loud noise by striking a large steel pipe with a hammer, just above and behind Little Albert's head. After only seven

paired presentations of the rat and the loud noise, Little Albert began to cry and try to crawl away (CR) as soon as he saw the rat (CR), even though the rat was not paired with the loud noise on this occasion. The fear response generalized to other furry objects, including a rabbit, a dog, a fur coat, and a Santa Claus mask. Little Albert had not displayed fear of any of these objects prior to the pairing of the loud noise with the presentation of the rat.

FILL IN THE BLANK Neutral Stimulus: Unconditioned Stimulus: Unconditioned Response: Conditioned Stimulus: Conditioned Response: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION After conditioning, Albert feared not just the white rat, but a wide variety of

similar white objects as well. His fear included other furry objects including Raynor's fur coat and Watson wearing a Santa Claus beard. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING EXAMPLE APPLICATION OF CC IN


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