Memory (topic Tuesday)

Memory (topic Tuesday)

Memory spiral activity (20 minutes) Memory activity 2017 Explain two differences between procedural memory and episodic memory (4) Using your knowledge of coding in memory, explain these findings. (4)

Outline and evaluate research (theories and/or studies) into the effects of misleading information on eyewitness testimony. (16) 2018 Name the two components of working memory that would be involved in the performance of the tasks in Condition A. (2) Briefly explain two ways in which the working memory experiment described above could be improved. (4) Discuss one strength of the working memory model. (4) Describe the cognitive interview (6)

Outline one explanation of forgetting. How might this explanation account for Aarons poor performance in the Spanish exam? (4) Briefly evaluate the explanation of forgetting you have outlined in your answer to Question 08 (4) Explanations for forgetting Cognitive interview Multi store model Anxiety and WFE Long term memory

Jamie wanted to contact his doctor. He looked up the number in his telephone directory. Before he dialed the number, he had a short conversation with his friend. Jamie was about to phone his doctor, but he had forgotten the number. Use your knowledge of the multi-store model to explain why Jamie would not remember the doctors number (4) According to the MSM rehearsal is needed to keep information in the STM or transfer it to LTM. The

conversation with his friend will prevent Jamie from rehearsing the phone number. The STM has a limited capacity (7+/-2) and duration (18-30 sec) so he will find it difficult to recall the number after the conversation Describe one way in which psychologists have investigated the duration of short-term memory. In your answer, you should include details of stimulus materials used, what participants were asked to do and how duration was measured. (4)

Peterson and Peterson (1959). They presented participants with a consonant trigram. Rehearsal was prevented by asking them to count backwards in threes from a specified number. After intervals of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds participants were asked to stop counting and to repeat the trigram. The % of trigrams correctly recalled was recorded for each time interval. The multi-store model of memory has been criticised in many ways. The following example illustrates a possible criticism. Some students read through their revision notes lots of times before an

examination, but still find it difficult to remember the information. However, the same students can remember the information in a celebrity magazine, even though they read it only once. Explain why this can be used as a criticism of the multi-store model of memory. (4) Mere rehearsal is too simple a process to account for the transfer of information from STM to LTM. Even though students rehearse the information it doesnt transfer from STM to LTM as predicted by the model

Information in the magazine is only presented once, but it does transfer to LTM, despite lack of rehearsal therefore it shows that rehearsal is not always needed to transfer info to LTM Interference theory tells us little about the cognitive processes involved in forgetting. The majority of research into the role of interference in forgetting has been carried out in a laboratory using lists of words, a situation which is likely to occur fairly infrequently in everyday life (i.e. low ecological validity). As a result, it may not be possible to generalize from the findings.

Baddeley (1990) states that the tasks given to subjects are too close to each other and, in real life; these kinds of events are more spaced out. Nevertheless, recent research has attempted to address this by investigating 'real-life' events and has provided support for interference theory. However, there is no doubt that interference plays a role in forgetting, but how much forgetting can be attributed to interference remains unclear The findings of this study can be used to help students. If these findings can be generalised to other situations,

it makes sense that students would revise for tests in their college, if possible in the room in which they will take the exam. This means that this study has real valuable as evidence to guide students revision agendas The findings represent what happens when there is a large variation between contexts, but tells us little if the contexts are different but to less extremes. This means generalisation to other contexts must proceed with caution

Baddeley (1997) argued that these studies do not reflect real-life, and therefore the strength of the explanations should be questioned. He claimed that the contexts or states have to be very different to have an effect and subtle changes of environment or internal states, that tend to be the norm, will not have a strong effect. Therefore, there must be caution not to make exaggerated claims about cue dependent forgetting based on evidence that alters both context and state in a dramatic way. In places where getting instructions correct is absolutely vital, such as soldiers in novel environments, it is important to recognise that instructions maybe more

likely to be forgotten if issued back in the safety of the camp. This would also be an issue in other scenarios, such as deep water divers repairing oilrigs, astronauts, medics etc. therefore care must be taken by those involved to recognise this, and practice in as many different scenarios as may arise. Therefore, the value of these explanations maybe that they are used to save the lives of people in threatening and novel situations Outline one study that has investigated the effect of anxiety on eyewitness testimony. (4)

In Loftus's (1979) weapon focus experiment more participants correctly identified a person holding a pen (49%) than a person holding a knife covered in blood. However, in a real life study Yuille and Cutshall (1986) found witnesses who had been most distressed at the time of a shooting gave the most accurate account five months later. Also Christianson and Hubinette (1993) found victims of genuine bank robberies were more accurate in their recall than bystanders. A woman is being questioned by a police officer about a heated argument she witnessed on an

evening out with friends. The argument took place in a bar and ended with a violent assault. A knife was discovered later by police in the car park of the bar. Did you see the knife the attacker was holding?, asked the police officer. Im not sure there was a knife yes, there probably was, replied the woman. I was so scared at the time that its hard to remember, and my friends and I have talked about what happened so many times since that Im almost not sure what I did see. Discuss research into two or more factors that affect the reliability of eyewitness testimony. Refer to the information above in your answer. (Total 16 marks)

AO1 Content Knowledge of research into two or more factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (usually those named in the specification and implied in the stem) Misleading information, including leading questions: Loftus and Palmers (1974) experiment where the verb in the critical question was changed (smashed, collided, bumped, hit or contacted).

Loftus and Palmer: Did you see any broken glass? Anxiety: Loftuss (1979) weapon focus experiment found that more participants correctly Yuille and Cutshall (1986) found that witnesses who had been most distressed at the time of a shooting gave the most accurate account five months later.

Christianson and Hubinette (1993) found that victims of genuine bank robberies were more accurate in their recall than bystanders. Yerkes-Dodson law of arousal. Post-event discussion: Gabbert (2003) AO2 Application points

Links to leading questions Did you see the knife? (as opposed to a knife); question from officer is leading the witness who was not sure that there was a knife in the first place. Links to anxiety witness claims that she was so scared when the incident took place; this may inhibit or enhance her memory depending upon how severe the fear was. Links to post-event discussion my friends and I have talked about what happened so many times since that Im almost not sure what I did see. AO3 Discussion points

Will depend on research chosen but might include: Issue of validity in laboratory studies or lack of control in real-life situations. Methodological issues, including sampling, replication and corroboration with other studies. Ethical issues. Practical applications/implications of the research: e.g. development of cognitive interview.

Credit other relevant evaluation Some psychologists argue that there is always more information about an event in a persons memory than can be recalled at any one time. This means that eye-witness recall can be improved by using certain techniques and methods. Describe and evaluate at least one way of improving eye-witness recall. Refer to evidence in your answer. (Total 16 marks) AO1

Most answers will focus on the cognitive interview technique but any method / technique with a psychological basis should be credited (eg avoiding leading questions). Likely content: the original cognitive interview 4 features: restore context; recall everything even trivial detail; recall in reverse order; recall from another perspective. Credit also features of the enhanced cognitive interview eg relax, speak slowly. Likely evidence: Geiselman (1985). AO3 How / why recall is enhanced: eg role of context reinstatement; work on reconstructive memory; use of context; makes the event more meaningful. Limitations: eg usefulness of the cognitive interview with children; less useful when there is increased time

between event and recall. Relative effectiveness of individual features of the cognitive interview; better for recall of peripheral detail than central detail. Use of relevant evidence to support / refute argument.

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