Middle East: The Birthplace of Religion

Middle East: The Birthplace of Religion

Middle East: The Birthplace of Religion WILF: How does the presence of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam within the same region influence the development of the region? Judaism Oldest major religion First to teach monotheism

Trace ancestry to Abraham Descendants of Hebrews (Israelites) Three main sects: Orthodox, Conservative, & Reformed L in e a g e o f M o n o t h e is m A b r a h a m ,

f a t h e r G o d t o ld h im to o f

m o n o t h e is m s h e p h e r d , fo u n d e d t h e p e o p le k n o w n a s t h e H e b r e w s le a v e M e s o p o t a m ia a n d s e t t le in C a n a a n , t h e a r e a t h a t la t e r b e c a m e S ar a h , s e c o n d I s a ac ,

I s h m a e l, s o n s o n J a c o b , s o n

n a m e d a ls o H a g ar , fir s t w ife 1 d a u g h t e r f o u n d

w e ll, M e c c a Is ra e l a n d 12 s o n s

K a a b a , w h e re J s o n s o ld o s e p h , in t o

w ife s la v e r y th e w e ll w a s M u h a m m a d , in

E g y p t d ir e c t d e s c e n d a n t o f I s h m a e l fo u n d e r o f I s la m M o s e s , le a d I s r a e lit e s

K in g K in g K in g J o u t o f E g y p t S a u l D a v id S o lo m o n

e s u s , J e w , e x e c u te d b y th e R o m a n s fo llo w e r s c a m e t o b e c a lle d C h r is t ia n s Lineage is 4,000 years old Is ra e l Beliefs/Teachings Only one God

Based on their holy book; how to worship & how to live a moral life Pass on Jewish traditions to their families Supreme God: Yahweh Covenant with God Special agreement/ promise with God Ten Commandments from

Moses Place of Worship- Gods Chosen People & would live in a promised land called Canaan (Now Jerusalem, Israel) Assures Jews of Gods love & protection Holy Book Hebrew Bible, called the

Torah (Old Testament) First 5 books crucial Contains basic laws & describes history Talmud, serves as guide Structure Synagogue - house of worship Rabbi - spiritual leader

Does not actively try to convince others to convert to Jewish faith Give to the needy to create justice in the world Holy Days/Festivals Sabbath (Day of Rest) is Saturday Rosh Hashanah, New Year Yom Kippur, Day of Atonement

Hanukkah, Feast of Lights Bar Mitzvah/Bat Mitzvah Passover, freedom from Egypt Orthodox Customs Do not eat pork or shellfish Store meat & milk products separately Separate sets of utensils Kosher, means ritually correct

Do not work, travel, or carry money on the Sabbath Christianity Largest religious group monotheistic based on life & teachings of Jesus, the Messiah almost 2000 years old humanity can achieve salvation through Jesus 3 main sects: Roman Catholic,

Orthodox, & Protestant Spread of Christianity Spread orally by 12 apostles first Christians were Jews New Testament, written record of life & teachings of Jesus Started with the Birth Of Jesus in Bethlehem, Israel

Beliefs/Teachings Only one God God created the universe God sent son, Jesus, to help people fulfill their religious duties Holy Trinity, God has 3 parts 2 important practices: baptism & Holy Communion Holy Book/Holy Days

Bible, Old & New Testament Sabbath Lent, preparation for Easter

Palm Sunday Good Friday Easter Christmas Islam Fastest spreading religion originated in Middle East around 610 A.D. Muhammad had a vision calling him to be a prophet of

God Two major sects: Sunni & Shii Spread of Islam First spread orally Koran, holy book Muslims consider the Koran the words of God as spoken to Muhammad Beliefs/Teachings

Monotheistic Belief in series of prophets, including Moses & Jesus Belief in a Day of Judgment forbids lying, stealing, adultery, & murder Belief in Gods mysterious will Holy Book/Holy Days Koran, contains history of Muhammads search for God

Outlines goal: living according to Gods guidance Foundation for Islamic social law Moral behavior Muhammad's birthday Customs Five Pillars: Faith, Prayer, Alms (2.5%), Fasting, Pilgrimage Dietary laws, do not allow pork

or alcohol Major celebration when a child memorizes the entire Koran Mosque, holy place of worship Imam, prayer leader, selected by the followers Comparison all three are monotheistic all three acknowledge Abraham as the patriarch of their faith

each has a holy book each has a specific place of worship each one has a different view about Jesus Christ some of these religions share common holy sites in the region but also have their own unique holy sites

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