Midterm Proficiency Review - Kawameeh Middle School

World History Midterm Proficiency Review Prehistoric People to Ancient Greece Chapter 3: Prehistoric People 1. What are the main differences between Paleolithic and Neolithic people? Paleolithic people were hunter/gatherers. They were nomads, or moved around from place to place looking for food. Neolithic people were able to settle down in one spot because of the Agricultural Revolution (farming) and the domestication, or taming of animals. *The most important difference is how they obtained their food because it changed the world forever.

2. What is prehistory? The time in human history before writing occurred. 3. Explain the Agricultural Revolution: Growing of food on a schedule (farming), made it possible for prehistoric people to settle down in one spot and develop villages. Chapter 4: Mesopotamia 1. Why is Mesopotamia also known as the Fertile

Crescent? Fertile land (Excellent farming land) and crescent shape gave the cradle of civilization its nickname. 2. What present day country was Mesopotamia located on? Iraq 3. What did the Sumerians invent that helped control their environment? Irrigation systems helped changed the physical environment by controlling floods on the

Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. 5. What are ways Mesopotamia changed the world: They invented: Writing Cuneiform writing (1st writing system) Technology and Math the wheel sailboat wooden plow Improved math/astronomy Modern Civilization irrigation -> surplus farming -> specialization ->

rise of city-states 4. Explain who Hammurabi was and why he is so infamous: Hammurabi was a Babylonian king who created a code of laws. The laws dealt with almost every aspect of life: crime, farming, family, business, and marriage. Each law had a punishment. Hammurabis code became known as an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. The codes were meant to limit crime, blood feuds, and protect the less powerful (ex: women from abuse from their husbands). The code later influenced the laws of Greece and Rome. Aside from his code of laws, Hammurabi conquered new lands and created the Babylonian Empire which stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. Chapter 5: Ancient Egypt

1. Why was the Nile River so important to the people of Egypt? Besides providing water for drinking, cooking, bathing, and farming, it also Its yearly predictable flooding left rich soil on the river banks for farming. Irrigation systems to help farm the land during dry seasons. Cataracts, waterfalls or rapids in the river, made it hard for invaders to travel up the Nile and kept Egypt isolated. 2. What is a pharaoh and

what are they responsible for? A pharaoh is the leader (government and religious) of Egypt. They are responsible for: Building granaries to store food for the people so they wouldnt starve during hard times. Repairing irrigation systems so the crops wouldnt dry out. Performing important religious rituals. 3. Explain the importance of the afterlife to the Egyptians:

Egyptians embalmed the dead to preserve the bodies for the afterlife because the soul needed a body for the afterlife. embalm- the process of treating a body to keep it from decaying. Important Egyptian pharaohs of the Old Kingdom were honored and laid to rest in pyramids. 4. What are pyramids and why were they built? The pyramids used math, engineering, science, and astrology to built the

pyramids tombs. The pyramids were built to honor the pharaohs of the Old Kingdom. King Tut, pharaoh in the New Kingdom, was not buried in a pyramid. 5. How did the ancient Egyptians change the world? Math and Medicine: The Great pyramids were built by the worlds first engineer using geometry. They were also placed in a specific location according to the stars using astronomy.

They invented 365 day modern calendar. They learned a lot about the human body from embalming. Their notes from the embalming process became the worlds first medical books. 6. What did Mesopotamia and Egypt have in common? They worshiped many gods (polytheism). Relied on the river for irrigation to grow crops. Expanded their territory by conquering new lands during their history.

Chapters 7-8 Ancient Greece 1. What was life in Sparta like? What was their government like? A city state based on its military. They were so determined to be a society of strong warriors that they left sick babies on a hillside to die. Women had more rights. Their government was run as an oligarchy- a small group of wealthy people with control of the government. They were a very strict society. 2. Compare and Contrast Sparta and Athens Sparta Athens

A city state based on its military. They were so determined to be a society of strong warriors that they left sick babies on a hillside to die. Their government was run as an oligarchy. A city state based on art, philosophy, architecture, and democracy. The leader that made Athens such a grand great citystate was named Pericles. 3. Why were the Olympics important to the ancient Greeks?

The Olympics were held to honor the god of all gods, Zeus. 4. Who was Pericles? A leader of Athens that turned the city-state into a center of art, philosophy, and architecture. 5. What was the last citystate to take over Greece? 6. From what culture did the Greeks get their alphabet from? The Phoenicians are known for giving the idea of an alphabet to the world.

Chapter 9: Ancient India 1. Describe the Indus River Valley: The oldest civilizations of ancient India were formed along the Indus River. Farming, transportation, and trade were all dependent on the rivers of ancient India. 2. Describe the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro: Harappa and MohenjoDaro were two major cities. They were unusual because their streets were laid out in a square grid

pattern like our modern day cities today. The people of Harappa were the first to develop major cities. 3. Explain how the caste system and how it affected the afterlife: Hinduism is based on the Caste system in which good people could be reincarnated, or reborn into a higher caste. Your Karma- the force that decided what caste you will be reincarnated into, is based on your Dharma- your personal duty (job) based on your placement in the caste system. Chapter 10: Ancient China 1. What are oracle bones and why were they used in ancient China?

2. Describe the two powerful rivers that the ancient Chinese settled on: Kings turned to their ancestors for answers to great questions in life. They would scratch these questions on oracle bones and heat them over a fire. They believed the pattern of cracks in the bones were the answers to their questions from the gods and ancestors. One of the rivers the ancient Chinese settled on the Huang He River, or the Yellow River,

nicknamed for its yellow soil. Although the flooding Huang He river has provided China with rich soil for farming, it has also taken millions of lives which is why the river was nicknamed Chinas Sorrow. The second river the ancient Chinese settled on is called the Chang Jiang, or the Yangtze River. 3. Compare and Contrast the 3 philosophies of ancient China Confucianism and Daoism encourage the improvement of society by putting your family and communities first and by giving up worldly desires and living in peace with nature.

Legalism punished society with harsh laws and strict punishments. 4. Explain the Golden Rule Confucius said to live by: 5. How did the Shang civilization weaken? There was a great difference between the wealthy aristocrats and the poor. The rich keep getting richer, the poor keep getting poorer. Chinese Inventions Cast iron plow- break up soil better than a wooden plow.

Drainage systems made swampy lands farmable. Waterwheels could grind more grain. Iron drill bits mined salt. Wheelbarrows could carry heavy items. Silk/paper. Improved the sailboat. Acupuncture- A practice of inserting fine needles through the skin at specific points to relieve pain and treat disease. New medicines with herbs.

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