Midwest Veterinary Conference - The Horse Portal

Midwest Veterinary Conference Performance Nutrition Management Tools for the Performance Horse Presented by: Donald R Kapper, PAS, Retired Director of Nutrition and Technical Services Progressive Nutrition Consultant to Cargill Equine Enterprise Team Cargill Animal Nutrition Todays Menu Session 4: From a Nutritional Point-of View Session 4: 1) Feeding Feeding Based Based on on Age Age and and Performance Performance Level Level 1) 2) Recommended Recommended Allowances Allowances for for the the Performance Performance Horse Horse 2)

3) Fuelling Fuelling the the Muscles, Muscles, based based on on Muscle Muscle Type Type and and Training Training 3) Level Level 4) Helping Helping your your Client Client select select aa Performance Performance Horse Horse Feed Feed 4) 5) Recovery Recovery after after Exercise Exercise 5) a) Fluid Fluid and and Electrolyte Electrolyte Balance, Balance, What What and and How How to to

a) Administer and and When When Administer b) Amino Amino Acid Acid Support, Support, after after exercise exercise b) Estimated Body Body Weights Weights for for Growing Growing Horses Horses Maturing Maturing at at 400, 400, Estimated 500, and and 700 700 Kg Kg while while Growing Growing at at aa Moderate Moderate Rate Rate (2007 (2007NRC NRCfor forHorses) Horses)

500, Mature Body Wt. Age Birth 1 month 2 months 3 months 4 months 5 months 6 months 9 months 12 months 18 months 24 months 36 months 400 Kg/880 lbs 500 Kg/1100 lbs Weight Percent of Weight (Kg) Mature Wt. (Kg) 44/96 72 92 120 145 161 180 225 265 333 365 400/880

11 18 23 30 36 40 45 56 66 83 92 100 55/121 85 110 140 175 193 215 272 325 400 450 490/1078 700 Kg/1540 lbs Percent of Mature Wt. Weight (Kg) Percent of

Mature Wt. 11 17 22 28 35 39 43 55 65 80 90 98 77/170 112 147 182 225 245 275 350 420 525 600 650/1430 11 16 21 26 32 35 39 50

60 75 85 93 Comparison of of the the Recommended Recommended Allowance Allowance Comparison of Nutrients Nutrients in in the the Total Total Diet Diet of of of Performance Horses Performance Horses Light Training Moderate Training Heavy Training Nutrient Mature Dry Matter 3.0-3.5 2 yr - Mature / Mature 1.75-2.25 2.0-2.5

(% of Body Weight eaten/day) Crude Protein, % 12.00 10.50 12.00 Calcium, % .55 .40 .44 Phosphorus, % .36 .27 .30 Potassium, % .70 .70 .90 Magnesium, % .19 .18 .22 Sodium, % .16 .16 .20 Iron, ppm 80 80 2 yr - Mature / Mature 2.0-2.5 2 yr to Mature /

2.5-3.0 2.5-3.0 12.50 11.00 13.00 .56 .42 .57 .37 .28 .38 .80 .80 .90 .21 .20 .18 .18

80 80 .23 .20 80 Fuels needed needed to to Fuels Support Muscle Muscle Support Function Function Different Calorie Sources Used for Fuel !! 1) Non-Structured Carbohydrates (Starch plus ESC) Highest in Cereal Grains: Corn, Barley, Oats, etc. Next Highest in Immature Forages (fresh grass pasture) Can cause Hyperactive attitude if NSCs are over fed Short Term Energy (Fast Twitch) High intensity/short duration work Utilized when Heart Rates are above 170

2) Structured Carbohydrates (Fermentable Fibers - RFV) Highest in the fiber of Immature Hay and Pasture Grass Lower in the fiber of Mature Hay Horses Have Have Three Three Different Different Muscle Muscle Horses Fiber Types Types Determine Determine What What Type Type of of Fiber Fuel is is Best Best Fuel 1) Fast Twitch - High Percentage in Sprinters (Quarter Horses) Fast, Quick Movements

Larger & More Prominent Muscle Size Utilize Glucose for Fuel Sprinting - Tires Easily 2) Slow Twitch High Percentage in Endurance (Arabians) Slower Movements Longer & Leaner Muscle Size Utilize Fat for Fuel Long Term - Endurance 3) Trainable About 50% of the Muscles in Horses Can be Trained to be either Fast or Slow Twitch Can Utilize both Fat or Glucose for Fuel Based on the Type of Calories You Feed Takes a minimum of 3 weeks to effectively change Equine Muscle Muscle Fiber Fiber Types Types And And Their Their Equine Concentrations Concentrations

In Equine Equine Athletes* Athletes* In Activity (A,B,C) Type II B Breed (1 4) Type I (Slow Twitch) Type II A (Trainable) (Fast Twitch) A. B. C. 1. 2. Endurance horse 5% Sprinter 40% Heavy foxhunter 35% Standardbred racehorse

30% Arabian 40% 6% 55% 54% 30% 35% 20% 50% 20% 50% Feeding Performance Performance Horses Horses Feeding 1. 2. Remember to use the RFV Chart for your Clients Forages Select a Performance feed, based on calories needed per day a) Low Fat and High Fiber (lower calorie)

1) 2) b) High Fat and High Fiber (medium to high calorie) 1) 2) c) For the horses in Beginning to Light Training (EasyKeeping) Cr. Fat < 4%; Cr. Fiber >16% For the horses used in Moderate to Heavy Training (Slow Twitch) Cr. Fat between 6% - 12%; Cr. Fiber > 16% High Fat and Low Fiber (highest calorie) Feed Value Value as a a Feed as Management Tool Tool for for Management Calorie Needs: Forage Grade Best RFV to Performance Performance

Feed 1) Highest Need 1. Over 125 Upper Level: Racing, Endurance, FEI (3-Day Eventing, etc.) 2) Medium Need ....2.... 103 to 124 Lower Level: Dressage/Hunters/Jumpers, Eng. & West. Pleasure 3) Lowest Need ..3 to 4..75 to 102 Beginning Breaking for Training 4) Avoid feeding 5... Below 74 Because there is a high incidence of impaction colic due to the amount of over-mature and PERFORMANCE FEED: Read the Purpose Statement on Each Feed Tag Example: Should include for Performance Horses: 1) For Performance Horses (then look at the percentage of fat and fiber) 2) Horses of All ages, eating Grass or Mixed Forage (Balancer + Calories) 3) Growing, Reproducing, Performing as well as Idle Horses NOT: 4) For Mature, Idle Horses 5) Maintenance Horse Feed Then make sure the recommended Feeding Directions are Monitor Monthly Monthly Monitor 1.

2. Have your clients monitor and record all of their horses BCS and TES, and pounds of feed they are feeding, the 1st of every month The variables affecting how many pounds of their Performance Feed they should feed per day, include: a) b) c) Their Body Condition Score Quality & Quantity of their Forage (hay and pasture grass) Their Daily Work Load or Training Level Performance Electrolytes Electrolytes Performance Their Impact Impact on on Supporting Supporting Their the Muscle Muscle and and its its the Recovery Rate Rate After

Recovery After Workout Workout Performance Electrolytes 1)What are are they? they? 1)What 2) What What do do they they do? do? 2) 3) How How much much should should be be given given 3) per day? day? per Aqua-Aide Aqua-Aide Performance Performance Electrolyte Electrolyte After 3 years of research, the University of Guelph published in the

J. of Ex. Phys.: When providing a Performance Electrolyte, properly formulated and administered as recommended, it can: 1) 2) 3) delay the onset of fatigue by over 22% reduce muscle cramping improve the horses ability to bounce back and perform at the Electrolytes in in Electrolytes Performance Horse Horse Diets Diets Performance 1. Correctly formulated Performance Electrolytes can: a) b) 2. 3. Increase time to fatigue, and Decrease recovery times with proper use

Performance Electrolytes are formulated to replace ions, or salts, lost in sweat. The addition of Dextrose is needed to improve rate of absorption in the small intestine Demands are highest: during work in hot, humid weather a) The amount of ions and water that needs replaced are directly related to the amount lost in sweat How to to Determine Determine aa How Performance Horse Horse Electrolyte Electrolyte Performance The analysis of equine sweat is: Na + K + Ca + Mg = Cl + P + S 1. So the osmolarity of a Performance Electrolyte should equal sweat 2. Read the guaranteed analysis on the electrolyte label: a) b) the Na + K together should be close to equaling the Cl

Supplements containing 70% salt (NaCl4) are NOT performance electrolytes How Dehydration Dehydration Affects Affects the the Body Body How The performance horse at a competition, can be partially dehydrated from: 1. The trailer ride to the competition 2. Less than normal feed and water intake 3. Combined with prolonged sweating due to standing or performing in the sun How Dehydration Dehydration Affects Affects the the Body Body How So how does one detect dehydration? The standard methods: 1. 2. 3. 4. The skin pinch test Capillary refill time Plasma proteins Body mass losses How Dehydration

Dehydration Affects Affects the the Body Body How The parameters are outlined on the following chart: a) Green: Indicates normal for a healthy horse. b) Yellow: Indicates that caution is necessary, particularly as the number of parameters that fall into this category increase. c) Red: Indicates that there is a serious problem and all exercise should be stopped. Water and Electrolyte deficits will affect all 16 parameters Horse Health Check: Eyes a) Bright, Clear b) Glassy c) Fixed stare, sunken eye These parameters must be considered together to present the whole picture on the state of the horse. Wounds a) No visible marks b) Heat/ swelling/ tenderness c) Pain/ raw/ bleeding Capillary Refill a) 1-2 seconds

b) 2-3 seconds c) 4+ seconds Gut Sounds a) Normal sounds b) Reduced/ increased c) Absent or abnormal sounds Mucous a) 1-2 seconds Membranes b) 2-3 seconds c) 4+ seconds Gait a) No abnormal gait b) Slight gait change c) Consistent gait change or non-weight bearing Attitude a) Bright/ eating/ drinking b) Depressed/ lethargic c) Dull, not interested, absence of thirst, appetite, urination or defecation a) <38.6 C pre-ride b) <39.6 C before ride 39.5 - 40.4 C during ride c) >40.5 C

Anal Tone a) Tight b) Slight loose c) Anus/ penis relaxed Jugular Refill a) Pink, moist b) Pale, tacky c) Dry, purple, blue a) Relaxed b) Tight or tender c) Very tight and tender Rectal Temp Skin Pinch a) 0-1.5 seconds b) 2-3 seconds c) 4+ seconds Muscles/ back Heart Rate (After strenuous exercise) a) <68 in 10 minutes b) 68 in 10 minutes c) >68 in 30 minutes

Impulsion a) Free, willing, eager b) Stumble/ short stride c) Stiffness/ limping Respiratory Rate a) Relaxed/ regular b) Panting/ inversion c) Labored/ abnormal Joints/ legs a) No heat or swelling b) Heat/ swelling c) Pain/ raw/ bleeding Thermal Comfort Comfort Thermal 23 Four modes of heat flow 24 How to to Interpret Interpret the the HeatHeatHow Stress Chart* Chart* Stress The Heat-Stress Score is the

combination of the: 1) 2) Environmental Temperature, and Relative Humidity a) Range includes: High and Low Humidity How to use: Check Temperature for the day: (Vertical Left (degree C), or Right (degree F) against the Relative Humidity (Horizontal Base) and follow the appropriate color bar to Upper Horizontal values, to read the Heat-Stress Score. How to to Interpret Interpret the the HeatHeatHow Stress Chart Chart Stress As the score increases, the ability of the horse to cool itself becomes more difficult. Heat-Stress Scores: 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. Less than 80 require no special precautions. Above 90, a horse must evaporate fluids (sweat or water) to maintain a normal body temperature. Above 100, sweating is insufficient to cool, water layering must also be used on the horse. Above 110, ice water layering and ice will be necessary to cool the exercising horse. Above 115, serious consideration should be given to cancelling all exercises. Note the irregularity on the chart that occurs when the Temperature is greater then 70 degrees F and the Humidity is greater than 60%. This axis Performance Horses Horses Digestive Digestive Performance All Electrolytes MUST be broken down with water System before they can System be absorbed: 1. a) b) Horses must drink water shortly after powder or paste electrolytes are administered orally Administering Electrolytes mixed into water will speed

up the absorption process and rehydration 2. All Electrolytes are hydroscopic. They will dehydrate your horse if they do not drink, or drink enough water after they are fed dry 3. All Paste electrolytes will lay in the digestive system of the horse until they draw enough water from the body to break them down, so they can be absorbed a) Therefore, if paste electrolytes are given during or right after exercising, they will dehydrate your horse at a very critical time! Performance 1. Traveling Traveling and and Light Light Work: Work: 1. Top Dress Dress the recommended recommended ounces/day ounces/day onto onto Electrolytes Top the their feed

their feed 2. 2. Moderate, Heavy Heavy to to Very Very Heavy Heavy Work: Work: Moderate, Provide the the Aqua-Aide Aqua-Aide Solution Solution with-in with-in 45 45 Provide minutes after after training training or or competing, competing, while while minutes cooling down down cooling Performance Electrolyte Electrolyte Solution Solution = = Mix Mix Performance

ounces of of Aqua-Aide Aqua-Aide powder powder per per 11 44 ounces Gallon of of water water to to assure assure optimal optimal Gallon osmolarity for for faster faster absorption absorption and and osmolarity utilization utilization Performance Performance Electrolytes Electrolytes The number of ounces of Performance Electrolyte powder to provide per day will depend on how much they sweat: 1) Training Level of each horse: (Terminology) a) b)

Beginning, Low Level, Upper Level and FEI Training Light, Moderate, Heavy and Very Heavy Exercise 2) Heat Stress Score of the day: a) The Temperature and Humidity (%) How Many Ounces/Day of Performance Electrolytes are I. Heat Heat Stress Stress Index Index under under 90: (Green (Green & & I. 90: Blue Areas) Areas) Blue Idle/Traveling =00oz oz Needed Idle/Traveling to Replace their Loss = Training Level = 1 oz

= 1 oz Amount of Electrolyte = 2 oz = 2 oz =33Solution oz. = oz. Or 90 of Solution II.. Heat Heat Stress Stress Index Index between between 90Gallon 105: II 105: (Yellow & Orange)Or Gallon of Solution Training Level UpperLevel Level Upper FEI,Eventing Eventing FEI, (Yellow & Orange) Idle/Traveling Idle/Traveling TrainingLevel Level

Training UpperLevel Level Upper FEI,Eventing Eventing FEI, =11oz oz = =22oz oz = =44oz oz = =66oz oz Or 1 Gallon of Solution = Or 1 Gallons over 105: (Red & of Solution III.. Heat Heat Stress Stress Index Index over III Purple) Purple)

105: (Red & Idle/Traveling = =1.5 1.5oz oz Idle/Traveling TrainingLevel Level = =33oz oz Training Or 1 Gallons of Solution UpperLevel Level =66oz oz Upper = Or 2+ Gallons of Solution FEI,Eventing Eventing = =99oz oz FEI, Additional Recovery Recovery After After Additional Exercise Exercise Amino Acids Acids Impact Impact on on

Amino Supporting the the Supporting Muscle After After Workout Workout Muscle Recovery After After Exercise Exercise Recovery 1. Milk Based amino acids (AA) provide a faster recovery 2. Timing when fed is important also a) 3. Best with-in 45 minutes after work A little goes a long way Example, after a strenuous workout: a) 200 lb Human: 25 grams AA /bottle = 13 gram/100 lbs. B.Wt. of Myoplex b) 1,100 lb Horse: 138 grams amino acids

(AA) Amino Acid Acid Sources: Sources: Soy Soy vs vs Milk Milk Amino Soybean Meal currently cost less Milk is more digestible and contains more BCAAs Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine Crude Protein Ingredient Leucine % 48% - Soybean Meal 3.60% 70% - Soy Protein Isolate 5.80% 80% - Whey Protein Concentrate

7.75% CHO + + PROTEIN PROTEIN + + LEUCINES LEUCINES CHO AFFECT on Muscle Muscle Function Function and and AFFECT on Recovery Recovery Am J Physiol Endorcrinol Metab. 288 Am J Physiol Endorcrinol Metab. 288 Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases post exercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo Am J Physiol Endorcrinol Metab. 288 Amino Acids Acids -- Equine Equine Sports Sports Amino Nutrition Nutrition 1) Helps Helps build build and and develop

develop 1) muscles muscles 2) Help Help with with recovery recovery after work 2) after work Contains all 10 essential amino acids Todays Take Take Home Home Message: Message: Todays Balancing your clients horses Total Diet and that comes from: 1. Knowing the daily nutrient needs of the horse 2. Knowing the nutrients in their forage (hay and pasture) 3.

Selecting the correct Horse Feed or Balancer to make up the difference between the nutrients in the forage and what their horse needs to perform up to their genetic potential Equine Nutrition Contact Information: 1. Nutrition, Management or Product questions, as well as Requests for Educational Support (i.e. speaker for a Client Education Seminar, etc), call Abby Keegan, M.S.: Phone: 319-430-1729, or email: [email protected] 2. To order Progressive Nutrition Veterinary Care products: Phone: 1-888-239-3185, or email: [email protected]

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