Module 29: Biology, Cognition, and Learning

Module 29: Biology, Cognition, and Learning

Module 29: Biology, Cognition, and Learning 29-1: How do biological constraints affect classical and operant conditioning? 29-2: How do cognitive processes affect operant conditioning? 29-3: In what two ways do people learn to cope with personal problems? 29-4: How does a perceived lack of control affect other peoples behavior and health? Biological Constraints on Conditioning

29-1: How do biological constraints affect classical and operant conditioning? Biological Constraints on Conditioning 29-1: How do biological constraints affect classical and operant conditioning? Limits on Classical Conditioning John Garcia Conditioned Taste Aversion

Biologically primed associations Natural Selection and Learning Genetic predisposition Biological Constraints on Conditioning 29-1: How do biological constraints affect classical and operant conditioning? Limits on Classical Conditioning

Biological Constraints on Conditioning 29-1: How do biological constraints affect classical and operant conditioning? Limits on Classical Conditioning Naturally adapting behaviors Instinctive drift Cognitions Influence on Conditioning

29-2: How do cognitive processes affect operant conditioning? Cognitive Processes and Classical Conditioning Predictability of an event Expectancy Stimulus associations Cognitions Influence on Conditioning

29-2: How do cognitive processes affect operant conditioning? Cognitive Processes and Classical Conditioning Edward Tolman conducted research on the cognitive learning of mice when placed in a maze. He proposed that learning takes place cognitively, and thus is not necessarily immediately observable. Cognitive maps, mental representations people rely on to understand complex patterns, are used by all of us each day. Many people are amazed at the ability of taxi drivers to successfully navigate their way around a city without the use os a tradional map. Yet they do use a map a mental map. An experienced taxi driver is able to drive to the desired location based on experience and a mental representation of the city he or she is navigating. When the taxi driver first learned the layout of the city, he or she most likely used a map or rode along with another experienced taxi driver.

When the time came to demonstrate his or her knowledge of the city streets, the new taxi driver would most likely be able to do so with great accuracy. Latent learning, learning that may not be displayed until a later time, is not always immediately observable and may lie hidden until a circumstance arises that requires this prior learning to be displayed. Insight Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Cognitions Influence on Conditioning

29-2: How do cognitive processes affect operant conditioning? Cognitive Processes and Classical Conditioning Insight Motivation 1) Intrinsic Motivation the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake. 2) Extrinsic Motivation the desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of

punishments. Influences on Conditioning Learning and Personal Control 29-3: In what two ways do people learn to cope with personal problems? Coping with Personal Problems: 1) Problem-focused coping attempting to alleviate stress by changing

the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor. 2) Emotion-focused coping attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring and attending to the emotional needs related to a stress reaction. Learning and Personal Control 29-3: In what two ways do people learn to cope with personal problems? Learned Helplessness (Martin Seligman) Martin Seligman proposed the idea of learned helplessness, failure to continue

exerting effort for an outcome because all previous attempts have failed. This theory explains that if a person or animal perceives they have no control over the outcome of a situation, they will abandon all efforts in trying to change the situation. Learned helplessness explains why some students stop trying in school. They believe that no matter how much effort they exert it will have little to no effect on the outcome. For example, Linda has tried numerous studying techniques to help her pass the AP Psychology test. Because Linda has not seen any favorable results from trying the different techniques, she feels that she will never pass an AP Psychology test and stops studying for the class all together. In this example, Lindas mental interpretation or thinking that she lacks control over the outcome of an event brings about a feeling

of hopelessness, which in turn leads to her no longer trying. Learning and Personal Control 29-3: In what two ways do people learn to cope with personal problems? Learned Helplessness (Martin Seligman) Learning and Personal Control 29-3: In what two ways do people learn to cope with

personal problems? Learned Helplessness: Internal Versus External Locus of Control Locus of Control 1) External Locus of Control chance or outside forces determine your fate. 2) Internal Locus of Control you control your own fate/destiny. Learning and Personal Control 29-4: How does a perceived lack of control affect other

peoples behavior and health? Learned Helplessness: Depleting and Strengthening Self-Control Self-Control the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for longer term rewards leads to: 1) good adjustment 2) better grades 3) social success

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