Module 4: Relationships in RDA - Library of Congress
Descriptive Cataloging Using RDA Module 1 Introduction, Concepts, and Tools Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division Library of Congress 2014 1 Acknowledgements This course is the product of collaboration between Tim Carlton, Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division, Library of Congress Ingrid Hsieh-Yee, Ph. D., Dept. of
Library & Information Science, Catholic University of America 2 About This Material This training material has been created for a primary audience of Library of Congress staff. Other audiences are welcome to adapt and utilize it as they see fit. However, it should be understood that it reflects LC policies, and should not be interpreted to either prohibit or require specific practices for other libraries or organizations. 3
Preamble Scope and Target Audience This curriculum is a conceptual overview of the basics of descriptive cataloging The intended audience is those persons who have little or no experience doing descriptive cataloging. Although primarily conceptual, it includes coverage of some significant details of RDA It is not expected that trainees be fully-functioning catalogers upon completion. Rather, trainees should be able to understand basic concepts, navigate RDA, and, like good librarians, know how to further their
education. 4 Learning Objectives Why Do We Catalog? Describing Resources Historical Overview of Cataloging Codes Cataloging Tools 5 Unit 1: Why Do We Catalog? Why do you think?
Lets brainstorm for a few minutes Hint: Think about users and catalogers 6 Some Possible Answers
To help people find things To know what we have in our collections To categorize and classify our resources To provide access To develop taxonomies and controlled vocabularies To transfer information To facilitate standardization To enable machine manipulation To collocate Because Google cant do everything and more 7 What Others Have Said to enable a person to find a book; to show what the library has; to assist in the choice of a book
to make the greatest number of items readily available to the greatest number of potential users the differentiation of the individual item (Downing, 1981) to record, describe, and index the holdings of a specific collection (Cutter, 1876)
(Wynar, 1985) to address the FRBR and FRAD User Tasks Find, Identify, Select, Obtain, Contextualize, Justify 8 Unit 2: Describing Resources How do we describe anything? How do we describe bibliographic resources? As we do these exercises, consider:
Isnt the act of describing, really, an attempt to categorize and distinguish? 9 How Do We Describe Anything? How would you describe this thing? Or, you might think of it this way: What are the characteristics that distinguish this thing from something else? 10
How Do We Describe Anything Continued That thing we described Do those ways of describing that thing have parallels for bibliographic resources? just Think about parallels broadly 11 How Do We Describe
Bibliographic Resources? What are the important parts of a resource? i.e., What are the important components of a bibliographic record? What are the characteristics that distinguish one resource from another Later, well use terms such as work, expression, and manifestation How are these characteristics recorded,
using MARC? 12 Looking at Surrogates Lets look at surrogates and think about what components are important FRBR User Tasks provide a framework for deciding what is helpful i.e., What is worth including in a catalog record? or, What is helpful to a user?
Find; Identify; Select; Obtain Note: the following records were cataloged using AACR2, not RDA 13 Book What are the different elements on this title page? Which of these do you think should be included in a catalog record? 14 Book
Are there any elements on this title page verso that you think should be included in a catalog record? 15 Book LC OPAC Full Display 16 Book LC OPAC MARC Display
Here is a different display of a portion of the same record; it is the MARC Tags view from the LC OPAC, and shows only some of the descriptive elements we talked about on the previous slide. 17 Sound Recording What are the different elements on this sound disk? Also, what do you not see that you would expect to see? Which of these should be included in a catalog record? 18
Sound Recording LC OPAC Full Display 19 Sound Recording LC OPAC MARC Display Again, here is the MARC Tags view from the LC OPAC, showing only some of the descriptive elements we talked about on the previous slide. 20 DVD What are the different elements on
this DVD? Which do you think should be included in a catalog record? 21 DVD OCLC Display Here is an OCLC display of a portion of the record, showing the elements we discussed on the previous slide and many more! 22 Unit 3: Historical Overview of Cataloging Codes
Antonio Panizzi Charles Cutter ALA AACR ISBD(M) Anglo American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition Resource Description and Access Subject Cataloging and Classification For Further Reading 23
Antonio Panizzi 91 Rules for Standardizing the Cataloguing of Books (1841) British Museum First major English-language cataloguing code http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Panizzi 24 Charles A. Cutter
Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (1876) First principles of cataloguing Objectives of the catalogue Entry and Description Collocation function Find a book Show what the library has Assist in the choice of a book http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Ammi_C utter 25
American Library Association Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries ALA Rules 1908; 1941; 1949 In conjunction with LC production of catalog cards Distinct parts of rules for entry and description 26
Anglo-American Cataloging Rules British Library; Canadian Library Association; Library of Congress 1967 Three parts Entry and Heading Description Non-Book Materials 27 ISBD(M)
International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications 1974 internationally accepted framework Goal: result in records that are convertible into machine-readable form Assigned an order to the elements System of punctuation 28 Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Second Edition -- AACR2
ALA; (British) Library Association; British Library; Canadian Committee on Cataloging; Library of Congress 1978; 1988; 1998; 2002 Goals Consolidate British and American versions Incorporate changes to AACR Promote international interest Facilitate machine treatment
Apply to non-book materials Description and Headings 29 RDA: Resource Description and Access ALA; Canadian Library Association; Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals 2009 Closely tied to FRBR/FRAD concepts User tasks Entities Attributes = Elements Relationships
All types of content and media 30 Subject Cataloging and Classification Library of Congress Subject Headings A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloging and Arranging Books and Pamphlets in a Library Dewey Decimal System Melvil Dewey Public and small academic libraries
Library of Congress Classification Most research and academic libraries 31 For Further Reading The Conceptual Foundations of Descriptive Cataloging. Edited by Elaine Svenonius. San Diego: Academic Press, 1989. Foundations of Cataloging: A
Sourcebook. Edited by Michael Carpenter and Elaine Svenonius. Littleton, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1985. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. 3rd ed. Edited by Marcia J. Bates and Mary Niles Maack. Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis, 2009. Last updated Aug. 10, 2012. (Available online or in print) 32 Unit 4. Descriptive Cataloging Tools Resource Description & Access (RDA) Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) MARC and beyond
33 Resource Description & Access Covered in detail in a later sequence of courses in this curriculum 34 Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements Interpretation and application of RDA Jointly crafted by LC and the Program for Cooperative Cataloging
PCC is an international cooperative effort aimed at expanding access to library collections by providing useful, timely, and cost-effective cataloging that meets mutually-accepted standards of libraries around the world BIBCO, CONSER, NACO, SACO Conducts specialized training and mentoring http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/ 35 MARC and beyond
MARC Bibliographic Framework Initiative (in development) 36 MARC MAchine-Readable Cataloging markup language for catalogers Understanding MARC Bibliographic http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/ Online resource for learning about MARC Source for the brief overview that follows
37 MARC Why is a MARC Record Necessary? Why can't a computer just read a catalog card? The computer needs a way of interpreting the information in a catalog record. A MARC record contains a guide to its data, or "signposts," before each piece of bibliographic information. The place provided for each of these pieces of bibliographic information (author, title, call number, etc.) is called a "field."
38 MARC Why is a MARC Record Necessary? If a record has been marked correctly programs can be written to format the information for printed catalog cards or for display on a computer screen programs can be written to search for certain kinds of information.
Using the MARC standard prevents duplication and allows libraries to better share bibliographic resources. 39 MARC Content Designation -- Tags Each bibliographic record is divided logically into fields (author, title, publisher, etc.). Each field is associated with a 3-digit number called a "tag." A tag identifies the field -- the kind of data -- that follows.
Though online catalogs may display the names of the elements, those names are supplied by the system software, not by the MARC record (remember the record examples). Each field is subdivided into one or more "subfields." 40 MARC Content Designation -- Indicators Two character positions follow each tag. One or both of these character positions may be used for indicators. The indicators are used to convey more coded information about the field.
Each indicator value is a number from 0 to 9. The allowable values and their meanings are spelled out in MARC 21 documentation. 41 MARC Content Designation Example for 245 245 14 $a The emperor's new clothes / $c adapted from Hans Christian Andersen and illustrated by Janet Stevens.
In this field: the tag 245 defines this as a title field the next 2 digits -- 14 -- are indicator values The first indicator (1) provides separate access to the resource through the title The second indicator (4) displays the number of leading characters to be disregarded by the computer in the sorting and filing process
Blanks are indicated in documentation by # 42 MARC Content Designation Subfields Most fields contain several related pieces of data. Each piece is called a subfield, and each subfield is preceded by a subfield code. Each code indicates what type of data follows. The subfields are separated by characters called delimiters.
Software programs and documentation use different characters to represent the delimiter (most commonly, as below, the dollar sign). Example: 300 ## $a 675 p. : $b ill. ; $c 24 cm. 43 MARC Tag Hundreds The broad divisions of the MARC 21 record are 0XX Control information, numbers, codes
1XX Main entry/Heading 2XX Titles, editions, imprints 3XX Physical description, etc. 4XX Series statements (as seen on the resource) 5XX Notes
6XX Subject access points 7XX Access points other than subjects or series 8XX Series access points 44 MARC Some Commonly-Used Fields
010 020 1XX 245 250 264 300 490 500 650 7XX Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) International Standard Book Number (ISBN) Creator access point
Title information Edition Publication information Physical description Series statements (as seen on the resource) Notes Topical subject heading Contributor access point 45 MARC Access Points Access points are an important part of the record. These are the headings for which a patron can search in an online catalog. 1XX fields (formerly called main entries)
4XX fields (series statements) 6XX fields (subject headings) 7XX fields (formerly called added entries) 8XX fields (formerly called series added entries) 46 MARC Parallel Construction
Access points use parallel tag construction: X00 Personal names X10 Corporate names X11 Meeting names X30 Uniform titles
X40 Bibliographic titles X50 Topical terms X51 Geographic names For example, a main entry (1XX) that is a personal name (X00), is coded as 100. 47 MARC Subfield Patterns Generally, there are patterns in subfield coding
$a is the first subfield, and usually represents the key data in the field Often, there is a mnemonic structure e.g., the name; the title; the ISBN; the subject e.g., $d for date; $n for numbering; $p for part; $l for language Consistency in coding subject subdivisions
topical, chronological, geographical, form 48 Bibliographic Framework Initiative An undertaking by the Library of Congress and the community to transition from MARC to a different bibliographic framework Intended to accommodate varying views of data FRBR for libraries DACS for archives CCO for museums
49 Bibliographic Framework Initiative Provide an alternative to the deeply embedded MARC formats More compatible with the Web-based and Linked-Data environment Start examining on your own http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/
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