Motion - PC\|MAC

Motion - PC\|MAC

Section 2: Weather Systems Weather results when air masses with different pressures and temperatures move, change, and collide. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the similarities and differences between the three major

wind systems? What are the four types of fronts? How do high- and low-pressure systems differ? Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Vocabulary Review

New convection Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Coriolis effect polar easterlies

prevailing westerlies trade winds jet stream front Weather Systems Global Wind Systems The directions of Earths winds are influenced by Earths rotation. This Coriolis effect results in fluids and objects moving in an apparent curved path rather than a straight line.

Together the Coriolis effect and the heat imbalance on Earth create distinct global wind systems They transport cold air to warmer areas near the equator and warm air to colder areas near the poles Global wind systems help equalize the thermal energy on Earth Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems

Visualizing the Coriolis Effect The Coriolis effect results in fluids and objects moving in an apparent curved path rather than a straight line. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i2mec3vgeaI How would Coriolis effect affect military snipers?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jX7dcl_ERNs Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Visualizing the Coriolis Effect Concepts In Motion FPO Add link to Interactive Table from p. 319 here. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Global Wind Systems

3 basic wind systems in each hemisphere: Polar easterlies, prevailing westerlies, and trade winds The directions of Earths wind systems, such as the polar easterlies and the trade winds, vary with the latitudes in which they occur. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

Weather Systems Global Wind Systems Polar easterlies The polar easterlies are the wind zones between 60 N latitude and the north pole, and 60 S latitude and the south pole. Wind going East at the N and S Poles because of dense polar air that sinks Weak and sporadic cold winds

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Global Wind Systems Prevailing westerlies The prevailing westerlies are the wind systems on Earth located between latitudes 30 N and 60 N, and 30 S and 60 S. Mid-latitude wind

Steady wind Move much of the weather across the US and Canada Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Global Wind Systems Trade winds Between latitudes 30 N and 30 S are two circulation belts of wind known as the trade winds.

Near latitudes 30 N and 30 S, the sinking air associated with the trade winds creates an area of high pressure. This results in a belt of weak surface winds called the horse latitudes. Earths major deserts (the Sahara) are under these high pressure areas Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Global Wind Systems

Trade winds Intertropical Convergence Zone Trade winds from the North and the South meet and join near the equator. The air is forced upward, which creates an area of low pressure. This process, called convergence, can occur on a small or large scale. Near the equator, it occurs over a large area called the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Clouds and thunderstorms deliver moisture to many of the worlds tropical rain forests

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Jet Streams On each side of these wind zones there is a temperature difference A large temperature gradient in upper-level air combined with the Coriolis effect results in strong westerly winds called jet streams.

A jet stream is a narrow band of fast, high-altitude, westerly wind. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Jet Streams Weather in the middle latitudes is strongly influenced by fastmoving, high-altitude jet streams. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Jet Streams Types of jet streams

The major jet streams, called the polar jet streams, separate the polar easterlies from the prevailing westerlies. The minor jet streams are the subtropical jet streams. They occur where the trade winds meet the prevailing westerlies. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Jet Streams Jet streams and weather systems

Storms form along jet streams and can generate large-scale weather systems. Jet streams affect the intensity of weather systems by moving air of different temperatures from one region of Earth to another. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Fronts A collision of two air masses forms a fronta narrow region between two air masses of different densities. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

Weather Systems Fronts Cold front When cold, dense air displaces warm air, it forces the warm air, which is less dense, up along a steep slope. This type of collision is called a cold front. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Fronts

Warm front Advancing warm air displaces cold air along a warm front. A warm front develops a gradual boundary slope. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Fronts Stationary front When two air masses meet but neither advances, the boundary between them stalls. This stationary front frequently occurs between two modified air masses that have small temperature

and pressure gradients between them. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Fronts Occluded front Sometimes, a cold air mass moves so rapidly that it overtakes a warm front and forces the warm air upward. As the warm air is lifted, the advancing cold air mass collides with another cold air mass that was in front of the warm air. This is called an occluded front.

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8d5m9_-_TiQ Concepts In Motion FPO Add link to Interactive Table from p. 322 here. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Pressure Systems

Sinking or rising air, combined with the Coriolis effect, results in the formation of rotating high- and low-pressure systems in the atmosphere. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Pressure Systems Low-pressure systems In surface low-pressure systems, air rises. When air from outside the system replaces the rising air, this air spirals inward toward the center and then upward. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

Weather Systems Pressure Systems High-pressure systems In a surface high-pressure system, sinking air moves away from the systems center when it reaches Earths surface. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Weather Systems Pressure Systems

In the northern hemisphere, winds move counterclockwise around a low-pressure center, and clockwise around a high-pressure center. Low-pressure center Copyright McGraw-Hill Education High-pressure center Weather Systems Review Essential Questions

What are the similarities and differences between the three major wind systems? What are the four types of fronts? How do high- and low-pressure systems differ? Vocabulary Coriolis effect polar easterlies prevailing westerlies

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education trade winds jet stream front Weather Systems

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