Mr King's Chemistry Revision Summary Sheets Topic 1 - xxx

Mr King's Chemistry Revision Summary Sheets Topic 1 - xxx

Mr King Chemistry Paper 1 Revision Question and Answer Sheets Things to do Test yourself regularly Ask somebody at home to test you Make flashcards of the questions and answers Use these on Quizlet Search Kings Chem Revision Youll have a weekly quiz on these questions Remember, you can also use Seneca to keep revising Chemistry Revision Sheets - Topic 1 The Atom History of the Atom 400 BC First Idea Spheres Early Greece 1913 Niels Bohr Neutrons exist m to A nt e r r Cu M ic od el Answers What are the three subatomic particles? Proton, Neutron, Electron State the masses of the three subatomic particles Proton (1), Neutron (1), Electron (0) State the charges of the three subatomic particles Proton (+1), Neutron (0), Electron (-1) What information does the atomic number give you? Number of protons in an atom What information does the mass number give you? Number of protons and neutrons How can you calculate the number of neutrons in an atom? Mass number atomic number What is the approximate radius of an atom? 0.1 nm (1 x 10-10 m) What is the approximate size of a nucleus? 1/10000th of the atom (or 1 x 10-14 m) What is an isotope?

Atom of the same element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons Electrons in shells In what order were the subatomic particles discovered? Electron Proton Neutron 1932 James Chadwick Describe the plum pudding model Ball of positive charge containing negative electrons What did the alpha particle scattering experiment prove? Atoms have a dense nucleus with a positive charge Which scientist adapted the nuclear model of the atom by discovering electrons orbit in shells? Niels Bohr Which scientists experimental work proved that neutrons exist within the nucleus? James Chadwick 1897 Plum Pudding JJ Thompson Gold foil experiment showed atoms have a dense, positively charged nucleus Questions 1905 Nuclear Model Ernest Rutherford Chemistry Revision Sheets - Topic 2 Elements, Compound and Mixtures Terminology Element X Element Y Mixture of Element X and Element Y Compound of Element X and Element Y Separating Mixtures Chromatography Separate mixtures of soluble substances (ink, food colourings) Filtration Separates a mixture of a liquid and an insoluble solid Distillation Separate mixtures of two or more substances with different boiling points. The mixture is heated until one substance evaporated and removed, then cooled to condense back to a liquid. Crystallisation Separating a mixture of a soluble solid and a liquid

Questions Answers Define the term Atom The smallest part of an element that can still be recognised as that element Define the term Element Substance made of one type of atom only Approximately how many elements are organised into the periodic table? 100 Define the term Compound A substance made of two or more different atoms chemically bonded together Define the term Mixture Two or more different elements or compounds, not chemically bonded together. What type of bonding would you find in a molecule? Simple covalent bonding How can you separate an insoluble solid and a liquid? Filtration How can you separate a soluble solid and a liquid? Crystallisation How can you separate the colours in an ink? Chromatography How does distillation work? Evaporation then condensing Chemistry Revision Sheets - Topic 3 Periodic Table, Groups and Trends Group 1 Alkali Metals One electron in outer shell. As you go down the group, the reactivity of the elements increases. This is because more shells = more shielding = easier to lose electrons Group 7 Halogens Seven electron in outer shell. Non-metals. As you go down the group, the reactivity of the elements decreases. This is because more shells = more shielding = harder to gain electrons

As you go down the group melting/boiling points increase. At room temp. F/Cl = Gas. Br = Liquid. I = Solid. Group 1 Group 7 Group 0 Group 0 Noble Gases Unreactive. Full outer shells of electrons. As you go down the group, the boiling points of the noble gases increases. Questions Answers What are the columns in the periodic table called? Groups What can the group tell you about the electrons in an atom? Number of electrons in outer shell What are the rows in the periodic table called? Periods What can the period tell you about the electrons in an atom? How many shells an atom has How did scientists originally organise the periodic table? Atomic weight Why did Mendeleev group some elements together? Similar chemical properties Why did Mendeleev leave gaps in his periodic table? For elements that hadnt been discovered yet How was Mendeleev proved correct? Elements matching his predictions were found. Which alkali metal (Group 1) is more reactive, sodium or lithium? Sodium Which halogen (Group 7) is more reactive, chlorine or bromine? Chlorine Why are noble gases (Group 0) unreactive? Full outer shells so do not need to gain/lose electrons

What is a displacement reaction? A more reactive element can take the place of a less reactive element in a compound Chemistry Revision Sheets - Topic 4a Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding Dot Cross Diagram Example Oxygen will gain two electrons from calcium atom to become a negative oxide ion (O2-). Oxygen has been reduced. Calcium will transfer two electrons to an oxygen atom to become a positive calcium ion (Ca2+). Calcium has been oxidised. Giant Ionic Lattice Questions Answers What form of bonding is between a metal and non-metal? Ionic In ionic bonding, are electrons transferred or shared? Transferred What is an ion? Atom which has lost/gained electron(s) Do metals form positive or negative ions? Positive Do non-metals form positive or negative ions? Negative If an atom gains electrons, what will the charge on the ion be? Negative If an atom loses electrons, what will the charge on the ion be? Positive What term describes the attraction between oppositely charged ions? Electrostatic Attraction What term describes a large structure of charged ions joined together? Giant Ionic Lattice What is the melting point of ionic substances? High/Low? High Why do ionic substances have high melting points? Strong bonds between oppositely charged ions are in a giant lattice structure. This requires a lot of energy to break. Can ionic substances conduct electricity as a solid? Why/why not? No, ions are not free to move. Can ionic substances conduct electricity as a liquid? Why/why not? Yes, ions are free to move and carry charge through the whole structure

Which two forms can an ionic substance be in to conduct electricity? Molten and dissolved in water (aqueous) Chemistry Revision Sheets - Topic 4b Covalent Bonding Questions Simple Covalent Bonding Dot Cross Diagram What form of bonding is between non-metals Examples only? Shared pair of electrons, single bond Two shared pairs of electrons, double bond Graphite Covalent In covalent bonding, are electrons transferred or shared? Shared What is a molecule? A small group of atoms, covalently bonded together What are intermolecular forces? Weak forces between covalent molecules Why do simple covalent molecules have low boiling points? They have weak forces between molecules which take little energy to overcome. Why cant simple covalent molecules conduct electricity? No charged particles (ions/delocalised electrons) How would you describe the bonding in diamond, graphite and silicon dioxide? Giant Covalent How many bonds can each carbon atom form? 4 Why can graphite conduct electricity? Each carbon only forms 3 covalent bonds. One electron from each carbon atom is delocalised and can carry charge through the whole structure Why is graphite soft? Weak forces between layers. Layers can slide What is graphene? One layer of graphite Give a use of fullerenes/nanotubes? Drug delivery. Conductors. Catalysts. Lubricants. Why is diamond hard/why does it have a high melting point? Each carbon forms 4 covalent bonds. It has a giant structure and these bonds require

a lot of energy to break. Giant Covalent Structures Diamond Answers Chemistry Revision Sheets - Topic 5 Metallic Bonding, Alloys and Polymers Metallic Bonding Negative delocalised electrons Positive metal ions Alloy Different sized atoms. No layers. No Sliding. Harder. Monomer Polymer Questions Answers Describe the structure/bonding of a metal. It has positive metal ions, arranged in layers, with delocalised electrons. Why do metals have high melting points? Strong electrostatic attraction between negative delocalised electrons and positive metal ions. Why can metals conduct electricity? Delocalised electrons carry charge through the whole structure. Why are metals soft? Metal ions are in layers which can slide. What is an alloy? A mixture of two or more elements ((at least one must be a metal). Why are alloys harder than metals? Different sizer atoms disrupt the layers. This stops sliding. Why would you use an alloy instead of a metal? Alloys are harder, look better and are less reactive. What is each unit of a polymer called? Monomer What type of bonding is between the atoms in one polymer molecule? Covalent What type of bonding is between polymer molecules? Intermolecular forces Why do polymers have high melting points? Although intermolecular forces are weak, because polymers are long, they have a lot of these forces to break. Chemistry Revision Sheets Topic 6 Quantitative Chemistry Questions

Relative Formula Mass (Mr) Answers Mr of CaCO3? What is the law of conservation of mass? No atoms are lost or made in a chemical reaction 40 + 12 + (16x3) = 100 In a reaction, the mass of reactants is less than / equal to / more than / the mass of the products. Equal to Why might a reaction appear to have a decrease in mass? One product is a gas which escapes How do you calculate relative formula mass (Mr)? Add up all mass numbers of each atom in the formula What unit is used to measure the amount of substance? Moles How many particles are in one mole of a substance? 6.02 x 1023 6.02 x 1023, the number of particles in one mole, is known as Avogadro's Constant Step 2) mole ratio Li : Li2O From equation 2:1 0.071 : 0.0355 moles of lithium oxide What is the formula that links mass, moles and relative formula mass (Mr)? Moles = Mass / Mr Step 3) mass of lithium oxide = moles X Mr = 0.0355 x (7+7+16) = 1.065g Li2O Concentration What is the concentration if 1.5g of potassium iodide dissolves in 150cm3 of solution? What is the formula that links concentration, mass and volume? Concentration = Mass / Volume What unit is used for volume in calculations involving solutions? Decimetre cubed (dm3 ) How do you convert from cm3 to dm3? Divide by 1000 What is the unit for concentration? g/dm3 What is a limiting reactant? The reactant that is used up first in a reaction. Moles If you have 20g of CaCO3, how many moles is this?

Moles = Mass / Mr 20 / 100 = 0.2 moles Reacting Masses 0.5g of lithium reacts with oxygen. How much lithium oxide is made? 2Li + O2 Li2O Step 1) moles of lithium = mass / Mr = 0.5 / 7 = 0.071 moles Step 1) Convert units. 150cm = 0.150dm 3 Step 2) Concentration = Mass / Volume = 1.5 / 0.150 = 10g/dm3 3 Chemistry Revision Sheets - Topic 7 Reactivity Series and Metal Extraction Questions Reactivity Series Reaction with acid How to extract Reduction with carbon Electrolysis Reaction with cold water Unreactive Reduction with Carbon Copper oxide + carbon copper + carbon dioxide 2CuO(s) + C(s) 2Cu(l) + CO2(g) This is displacement; the carbon has displaced the copper. This is a redox reaction; the carbon has been oxidised and the copper has been reduced. Answers What experiment can you do to order metals by reactivity? Add metals to water/acid to see which reacts the most (amount of fizzing) Which type of reaction is oxygen removed? Reduction Define oxidation in terms of electrons Loss of electrons Define reduction in terms of electrons Gain of electrons What is a displacement reaction? A more reactive element takes the place of a less reactive element in a compound Why can carbon displace zinc from zinc oxide? Carbon is more reactive than zinc Why cant carbon displace magnesium from magnesium oxide? Magnesium is more reactive than carbon What is an ore?

Material containing enough metal for it to be economically worth extracting Why is gold found naturally in the Earths crust, and not need extracting? It is unreactive How do you extract metals which are less reactive than carbon? Reduction with carbon How do you extract metals which are more reactive than carbon? Electrolysis Describe bioleaching Bacteria can break down low-grade copper ores to produce an acidic solution containing copper ions (a leachate). Describe phytomining Plants are grown in soil that contains low grade copper ore. Plants absorb metal ions, theyre burnt and ash contains metal compounds. Chemistry Revision Sheets - Topic 8 Electrolysis Aqueous Cathode Rule At negative cathode, hydrogen is made, unless the metal present is less reactive than hydrogen. Electrolyte must be molten or dissolved in water (aqueous) so that ions are free to move. As a solid (giant ionic lattice) ions are not free to move so this substance cannot conduct electricity. Aqueous Anode Rule At positive anode, oxygen is made, unless there is a halogen present (Cl-, Bror I-) In aqueous substances, hydrogen and hydroxide ions are formed by some water molecules breaking down. H2O OH- + H+ Half Equations Reduction at anode. e.g.) Cu2+ + 2e- Cu Copper ions have gained electrons to become copper element. Oxidation at cathode. e.g.) 2Cl- Cl2 + 2eChloride ions have lost electrons to become chlorine element. Oxygen production at cathode: Oxygen is produced in electrolysis of aqueous substances which dont contain a halide ion: 4OH- O2 + 2H2O + 4e- Questions What is electrolysis? Answers Using electricity to break down a substance The ions become free to move around The anode

What happens to an ionic substance when it is melted or dissolved in water? What is the name for the positive electrode? What is the name for the negative The cathode anode? Do positive ions move to the anode or Cathode the cathode? Do negative ions move to the anode or Anode the cathode? Metals that are ____ reactive than carbon More need to be extracted using electrolysis What is the main disadvantage of using Requires a large amount of energy electrolysis to extract metals? to melt the compounds. Why is aluminium oxide mixed with To lower the melting point cryolite when extracting aluminium? What is produced at the anode and Aluminium at the cathode and cathode in the electrolysis of aluminium oxygen at the anode oxide? Why does the anode need to be replaced The oxygen reacts with the carbon in the electrolysis of aluminium oxide? electrode to produce carbon dioxide. In electrolysis of an aqueous substance, Oxygen is formed, unless a halogen what is the rule for what is formed at the is present. positive anode? In electrolysis of an aqueous subtance, It the metal is more reactive than what is the rule for what is formed at the hydrogen, hydrogen is produced negative cathode? instead. Chemistry Revision Sheets - Topic 9 Acids, Salts and Neutralisation Strong Acids Fully dissociate in solution: Questions Define acid in terms of pH Define acids in terms of ions State the three common acids and give their formulae What is a neutral solution? How do you measure pH? What is a base? What is an alkali? Which ions are always present in a solution of an alkali? What type of salts are formed by the three main acids? Weak Acids Partially dissociate in water: What is a neutralisation reaction? Which ions always react together in a neutralization reactions between acids and alkalis? Write the equation showing the reaction between H and OH ions metal + acid metal hydroxide + acid metal oxide + acid metal carbonate + acid What is a strong acid? What is a weak acid? What is a concentrated acid? What is a dilute acid? Answers A substance with a pH of less than 7 A substance which releases H ions in solution Hydrochloric acid, HCl(aq), Sulphuric acid, HSO(aq), Nitric acid, HNO A solution with a pH of 7. Water is an example. With an indicator or pH probe. A metal oxide, hydroxide or carbonate that will react with an acid. E.g. copper oxide A soluble base. E.g. sodium hydroxide OH Hydrochloric acid produces chlorides, sulphuric acid = sulphates, nitric acid = nitrates A reaction involving an acid that results in a neutral solution H and OH H + OH HO

salt + hydrogen gas salt + water salt + water salt + water + carbon dioxide An acid which completely ionises in water. An acid which partially ionises in water. An acid where there are lots of acid particles in the water. An acid where there are fewer acid particles in the water. Chemistry Revision Sheets - Topic 10 Endothermic and Exothermic Reaction Profiles Endothermic Exothermic How do we work out the overall energy change of a reaction? Work out the difference between the energy needed to break all the bonds in the reactants and the energy released to form all the bonds in the products. Questions State the law of conservation of energy. Answers Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only transferred from one place to another. How does the law of conservation of energy apply to In all chemical reactions, energy is either chemistry? transferred to the surroundings or from the surroundings. What is an exothermic reaction? A reaction where energy is transferred to the surroundings. Give two examples of exothermic reactions. Combustion, respiration What happens to the temperature of the It increases. surroundings during an exothermic reaction? What is an endothermic reaction? A reaction where energy is transferred from the surroundings. Give two examples of endothermic reactions. Thermal decomposition reactions, citric acid and sodium hydrogencarbonate. What happens to the temperature of the It decreases. surroundings during an endothermic reaction? State two uses of exothermic reactions Self-heating cans, hand warmers State two uses of endothermic reactions Some cooling sports injury packs What are reactants? The substances involved in a chemical reaction What are products? The substances formed when reactants have a chemical reaction If the reactants have more energy than the products, An exothermic one. The missing energy has what kind of a reaction must have taken place? been transferred to the surroundings as heat. If the reactants have less energy than the products, An endothermic one. The extra energy has what kind of a reaction must have taken place? been taken in by the surroundings. Is breaking bonds endothermic or exothermic? Endothermic. (Chemical bonds are strong so require energy to break). Is making bonds endothermic or exothermic? Exothermic. (Energy is released when chemical bonds are formed)

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