Multi-Processed 3D Printer: Detailed Design Review

Multi-Processed 3D Printer: Detailed Design Review

Multi-Process 3D Printer: Detailed Design Review Group Members: Jeremy Bennett Austin Chacosky Matt Demm Nick Hensel Chad Rossi Customer: Dr. Dennis Cormier Guide: John Kaemmerlen Objective Obtain feedback to prepare for the gate review Receive confirmation that the design is sufficient Receive approval to order the materials and to start preparation for Multi-disciplinary Senior Design II

Speaker: Chad Agenda Project Overview Review Customer Needs Review Engineering Specs Critical Subsystems Mechanical Electrical Head Interface Motion System Hybrid Rapid Manufacturing Tool (HRMT) Storage Subsystem Other Subsystems Enclosure/Safety System Extruder Tool Rotary Tool Machine Bed Bill of Materials Cost Layout Updated Risk Assessment Test Plan MSD II Project Plan Speaker: Chad MultiProto

Lab Single Process 3D Printers MultiProcess 3D Printer Open Source CNC Mill Speaker: Chad System Architecture Speaker: Austin Review of Customer Needs Speaker: Austin Review of Engineering Specs

Speaker: Austin Overall System Design Speaker: Matt Mechanical/Electrical Head Interface Speaker: Matt Mechanical/Electrical Head Interface FEA Results: 70N Load at COG for extruder head Max Stress: 44GPa (bolt) Fsyield= 1.25 Max Deflection: 0.03mm Speaker: Matt

Mechanical/Electrical Head Interface Speaker: Matt Mechanical/Electrical Head Interface Taper Pin Under 1g z, 1g y Maximum Spec Process Head @ 4g Deceleration Speaker: Matt Motion System Speaker: Nic Motion System Speaker: Nic Motion System Speaker: Nick

Motion System Speaker: Nic Motion System Speaker: Nic Motion System Speaker: Nic HRMT Storage Subsystem Speaker: Nic HRMT Storage Subsystem Speaker: Nic Enclosure/Safety System Speaker: Nic Extruder Tool

Speaker: Ma Rotary Tool Speaker: Ma Material Bed Speaker: Aus High Level Electrical Block Diagram Speaker: Mega Higher cost than Arduino Duo Lower clock speed

8 bit operation system May lead to slow system operation Speaker: Microcontroller Selection Arduino Due 32-bit ARM core, Low Power 3.3 Volt System Open Sourced Nature with Many Available Resources 84MHz Clock, 512Kb flash, 54 I/O Pins Speaker: Boneyard Inventory: Lin 3518M Motor

Insufficient Torque for moving large tool heads May be useful for future teams making powder bed Speaker: Boneyard Inventory: MD 23 Motor Model 23MD306S-00-00-00 Much higher torque than required Close to double the cost of more

appropriate motor No encoder If used 23MD306S may obscure true system performance May be useful for testing components Can be used as a fallback if selected motors fail Speaker: Motor Selection Nema23 Stepper Motors with

Integrated Motor Drivers Torque Requirements met by 175 and 262 Oz-in models Speaker: Boneyard Inventory: Xylotex 3.0 Motion Controller The use of Nema 23 Motors with built-in controllers make the Xylotex Controllers not needed May be useful for future bed system or if Nema 23 motor controllers fail

Speaker: Power Supply Selection Enclosed Adjustable 200W Power Supply Up to 8.8 Amps at 24 Volts Internal Current, Voltage and Temperature Protection Speaker: Cost Layout $1,400 $1,200 100% 90% 80% Sub System

Cost 60% X-Y Motion $1,258.88 Raw Material* $826.50 50% Motors $794.00 40% Enclosure $513.72 30% Z-Axis

$520.19 EMHI+ Tools $353.87 Bed $335.69 Electronics $329.64 Storage $13.08 Total $4,945.57 $1,000 70%

$800 $600 $400 $200 $0 20% 10% 0% *Raw materials includes: -10mm support plates for zaxis -Various plates to form EMHI assembly -Framework of the enclosure Speaker: Nick Bill of Materials X-Y Motion Control Item Long Axis Lead Screw Fixed Side Support Screw Nut

Nut Bracket Simple Side Support Shaft Coupling Maker Rail Carriage Plate Wheels Mount Bracket Nuts - M5 Bolts - M5x20 80/20 Double Fastener Makerslide to 80/20 80/20 Single Fastener Extended M8 - M8x55 M8 Nut M5x25 M5x16 Item Short Axis Lead Screw Fixed Side Support Screw Nut Nut Bracket Simple Side Support Shaft Coupling

Maker slide Carriage Plate Wheels Mount Bracket Nuts - M5 Bolts - M5x20 80/20 Double Fastener Makerslide to 80/20 80/20 Single Fastener Extended M8 - M8x55 M8 Nut M5x25 M5x16 Part Source Misumi Misumi Misumi Misumi Misumi Misumi Inventables Inventables Inventables McMaster McMaster

McMaster McMaster Inventables McMaster McMaster McMaster McMaster McMaster Part Source Misumi Misumi Misumi Misumi Misumi Misumi Inventables Inventables Inventables McMaster McMaster McMaster McMaster Inventables McMaster McMaster McMaster

McMaster McMaster Cost Per Quantity Total $79.68 $58.97 $29.10 $35.28 $36.69 $46.39 $32.84 $8.00 $11.95 $3.88 $0.07 $0.42 $1.09 $3.00 $0.64 $0.28 $0.05 $0.40

$0.36 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 8 8 8 4 16 4 4 4 8 $79.68 $58.97 $29.10 $35.28 $36.69

$46.39 $32.84 $16.00 $47.80 $15.52 $0.59 $3.37 $8.72 $12.00 $10.20 $1.14 $0.20 $1.61 $2.85 Cost Per Quantity Total $61.68 $58.97 $29.10 $35.28 $36.69 $46.39

$21.84 $8.00 $11.95 $3.88 $0.07 $0.42 $1.09 $3.00 $0.64 $0.28 $0.05 $0.40 $0.36 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 8 8 8

4 16 4 4 4 8 $61.68 $58.97 $29.10 $35.28 $36.69 $46.39 $21.84 $16.00 $47.80 $15.52 $0.59 $3.37 $8.72 $12.00 $10.20 $1.14 $0.20 $1.61 $2.85

Speaker: Nick Bill of Materials - Motors Bipolar Rotor "L" Weight Motor Description Torque (ozInertia Shaft Option Length (in) (lbs) in) (oz-in-sec2) Encoder Option Input Polarity Recommended Power Supply Price (USD) Nema 23 1.8

Stepper w/ Driver & 262 Encoder (X-Axis) 4.94 0.0068 2.41 Double 400 Line Sinking or Sourcing PSAM24V2.7A $208.00 Nema 23 1.8 Stepper w/ Driver & 175 Encoder (Z-Axis) 4.03 0.0042

1.75 Double 400 Line Sinking or Sourcing PSAM24V2.7A $177.00 Nema 23 1.8 Stepper w/ Driver & 175 Encoder (Y-Axis) 4.03 0.0042 1.75 Double 400 Line

Sinking or Sourcing PSAM24V2.7A $354.00 (Priced for two) Power Supply Description 350W Enclosed Supply Power (W) Voltage (V) Peak Current (A) 350 24 14.6 Outputs Input Price

(3)V+/(3)V- 115Vac/3.5A $55.00 (Priced for two) Total:$794.00 Speaker: Bill of Materials Enclosure DESCRIPTION QTY. PRICE SUBTOTAL Corner Connector 8 80-20 Bench Length 4

Included in raw materials total 80-20 Bench Width 4 Included in raw materials total 80-20 Vertical 5 Included in raw materials total Nut Block 12 $0.64 $7.65 Front Panel, Enclosure 1

$83.65 $83.65 Side Panel, Enclosure 1 $83.65 $83.65 Back Panel, Enclosure 1 $83.65 $83.65 Door HINGE 4 $5.68 $22.72

Door HANDLE 2 $3.86 $7.72 Example E-stop 1 $75.92 $75.92 Door Sensor + Latch 2 $16.18 $32.36 Various Fasteners

N/A $9.55 $76.40 $40.00 Total Cost: $513.72 Speaker: Matt Bill of Materials Z-Axis NAME 6709K13 6709K43 HFSP6-3030-341 MCGLC25-6.35-8 MTSRW12-351-F25V8-S18-Q8 MRWZ8 MRUZ8 MTBLR12 BACKPLATE MOTOR MOUNT PLATE

SUPPORT PLATE FIXED SUPPORT PLATE DESCRIPT VENDOR 20MM LINEAR RAIL CARRIAGE Misumi 20MM LINEAR RAIL, 340MM L Misumi 3030 EXTRUDED ALUMINUM MISUMI 6.35-8 DISC COUPLING MISUMI LEAD SCREW, 12D, 2MM PITCH, 340 TRAVEL MISUMI FIXED LEAD SCREW SUPPORT MISUMI LEAD SCREW SUPPORT MISUMI ANTI-BACKLASH LEAD NUT, 12MM MISUMI 10MM PLATE, MACHINED MSC (SORT OF)

QTY PRICE SUBTOTAL 1 1 1 1 117.45 0 13.09 31.76 117.45 0 13.09 31.76 1 38.54 38.54

1 1 64.21 29.61 64.21 29.61 1 1 136.42 136.42 Included in raw materials total 10MM PLATE, MACHINED 10MM PLATE, MACHINED * * 1 1 Included in raw materials total Included in raw materials total

10MM PLATE, MACHINED * MCMASTERCARR MCMASTERCARR 1 Included in raw materials total 1 42.15 42.15 4 3.67 14.68 *** 1

Z NUT MOUNT 50MM BAR, MACHINED 92871A707 *** SPACER NEMA 17 MOTOR (NEEDS SPECCING VARIOUS FASTENERS HNTTSN6-4 M4 EXTRUSION NUT BLOCK MISUMI 1 4 0 30 0.57 30 2.28

Total: $520.19 Speaker: Matt Bill of Materials EMHI + Tools NAME LEDEX-H-2414-029 LEDEX-C5-270-B-1 EMHI SIDE UMB SIDE Under Brace Top Brace Female Bracket Connector 93600A175 93600A115 9292K41 213893-2 213906-1 1-66400 1-66399 213847-4 213845-3 LRA6-A42-B20-L40 Stepstruder Mk7 Black & Decker Rotary tool UMHW Rotary Tool Clamps

DESCRIPTION ROTARY SOLENOID LATCHING SOLENOID Machined 75mmx90mmx10mm Machined 178mmx110mmx10mm Machined 65mmx90mmx10mm Machine 45mmx90mmx10mm Machined 40mmX60mmX10mm 8mmX20mm Dowel Pin (5) 6mm Precision Ground Dowel Pins (25) 6mm Hardened Ball Bearing (50) Female Socket, Flanged, 8 sig, 2 power Male Plug, Free, 8 sig, 2 power Signal Pin Signal Socket Power Socket, 50A Power Pin, 50A BRACKET Stock FOR MALE CONNECTOR Extruder Head Dremel Head 3-D printed plastic mounting clamps QTY 1 1 2 3

1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 8 24 2 6 1 1 1 2 VARIOUS FASTENERS N/A N/A PRICE SUBTOTAL $114.00 $114.00

$8.85 $8.85 Included in raw materials total Included in raw materials total Included in raw materials total Included in raw materials total Included in raw materials total $13.00 $39.00 $9.42 $9.42 $5.86 $5.86 $6.09 $6.09 $11.96 $11.96 $0.40 $3.20 $0.42 $10.08 $5.20 $10.40 $3.28 $19.68 $11.33 $11.33

$100.00 $100.00 $35.00 $35.00 $4.00 $8.00 N/A $75.00 Total: $353.87 Speaker: Matt Bill of Materials - Bed Part Name LevelingKnob LevelingBlock LevelingPlate BedMountingBracket HeatingPlate GlassPrintPlate Kapton Tape Distributor Material Cost

Misumi Misumi Misumi Misumi MakerFarm.com Misumi Ebay: mxqtech Quantity $4.71 $18.14 $43.58 $17.72 $35.00 $69.84 $5.88 4 4 1 4 1 1 3

Total Cost $18.84 $72.56 $43.58 $70.88 $42.35 $69.84 $17.64 Total Cost: $335.69 Bill of Materials - Electronics Part Name Microcontroller Wiring Cable Carriers Carrier Connector AC Power Strip Limit Switch Position sensors Cost Qty Total

60 1 12.6 9.66 15 10 4 1 60.00 40.00 126.00 38.64 15.00 10.00 40.00 Total Cost: $329.64 Bill of Materials - Storage PART NUMBER DESCRIPTION

P14551_Storage8020SupportRai 80-20 STORAGE ls_20131023 MOUNTING RAIL P14551_StorageBracket_201312 STORAGE BRACKET 05 5537T164 DOUBLE NUT BLOCK QTY. 4 6 12 PRICE SUBTOTAL Included in raw materials total Included in raw materials total $1.09 13.08 Total Cost: $13.08 Speaker: Matt

Motion Data Control Path CAD Files .stl G-Code files Skeinforge G -C ArduinoSend od e lin es G-Code lines G -C od e

lin es ulses p m I c i Electr Firmware based on TeaCup with G-code interpreter Speaker: Austi Test Plan Speaker: Austi Speaker: Austi Speaker: Austi Speaker: Austi

Speaker: Austi Speaker: Austi Speaker: Austi Speaker: Austi Speaker: Austi Speaker: Austi Test: Bed Adhesion Heated Bed Still On Adhesive force per square inch Speaker: Austi Test: Bed Adhesion Heated Bed Off Adhesive force per square inch Speaker: Austi Test: Milling and Drilling

Milling XYZ accuracy Drilling XY accuracy Drilling depth accuracy Time to switch rotary tool bit Time to switch from additive to subtractive process Impact of switching from additive to subtractive on repeatability (zero-ing accuracy) Speaker: Austi Miss deliverable deadlines Technical Project Management Effect Cause Part printed incorrectly Mechanical registration dimensions of end result failure or of position incorrect. Possible tool head

feedback/software control collision with bed or part Poor grade/ fall behind on project - might not complete entire project scope/ all nighters/ triage work Poor time management Importance Process Head Not Aligned Risk Type Identify the type of the risk Severity Risk Item Describe the risk briefly Likelihood Speaker: Chad

Updated Risk Assessment 2 3 6 Action to Minimize Risk Reason for Change Software and hardware registration used to verify. Very complex element changed from 3 to 2 use of sensors for location of storage with limit switches 2 2 4 Changed from 3 to 2. Team

Keep/maintain a detailed has done well with project plan/ plan to increase designing everythign on the amount and duration of time and we have constant meetings to get back on communication between the schedule (pull all-nighters to group to prevent this from reciver) happening 1 3 3 Head connection is active-off changed from 3 to 1 due to EMHI design and risk management identification Technical

Possibly damage print head Mechanical failure of or inside of printer. If interface. Software protection is not sufficient, incorrectly releases head. possibly damage the user. Machine Acquires Wrong Head Technical Printer carries out the wrong Mismanagment of head process, resulting in a bad placement part and possibly damaging information/head interface printer issue. 1 3 3 Redundant identification

system for head changed from 2 to 1 based on sensors that are implemented to the system, this is designed to never occur Operator gets hurt by machine (Burned, Blinded by Laser, UV Exposure, Cut by tooling, Inhale Powder, Caught in moving parts, etc.) Technical Operator requires medical attention/incurs medical costs 1 3

3 Safety protection components/ document needs and specs of each process Enclosure added Process Head Fall Off Failure to complete project Project Management on time Team member disappears Organizational Insufficient safety measures Failure to implement any processes/address other Attempt to implement too

customer many processes/Take too requirements/receive a poor long with design grade 1 3 Many possible reasons for member to become absent. Sickness/drop out/etc 1 3 Lose team capability. Responsibility of each team member increases Maintain good project plan with timing considerations / Aproaching end of MSD 1 3

Have biweekly schedule on time( from 2 to 1) checks to maintain an up to date status Increase the amount of Changed 2 to 3 on severity responsibilities per person/ because the amount of work assign "back-up" task-owners wuold substantially increase 3 on task by task basis who can to a point where it may fill in in the occurance of a effect the outcome and member disappearance completion date of project MSD II Project Plan Speaker: Chad Questions/Comments Appendix Motor Torque Z-Axis Motor Selection

X-Axis Motor Selection g rho L R p W V t Jlead Tload Taccel Ttotal g rho L R p W V t Jlead Jload Taccel

9.81 7.8 340 6 2 5000 100 0.01 5398.814 35.91204 69.61752 105.5296 m/s^2 9810 mm/s^2 g/cc 0.0078 g/mm^3 mm mm mm g mm/s s g-mm^2 N-mm See Sheet 2 N-mm

9.85867 oz-in n-mm 14.94424 oz-in 9.81 7.8 1200 8 3 8000 100 0.01 60222.07 22.51582 1157.578 m/s^2 g/cc mm mm mm g mm/s s g-mm^2 g-mm^2 N-mm

9810 mm/s^2 0.0078 g/mm^3 163.9268 oz-in Y-Axis Motor Selection g rho L R p W V t Jlead Jload Taccel 9.81 7.8 450 8 3 20000 100 0.01

22583.28 56.28955 435.011 m/s^2 g/cc mm mm mm g mm/s s g-mm^2 g-mm^2 N-mm 9810 mm/s^2 0.0078 g/mm^3 61.60273 oz-in Compumotor's Horizontal Lead Screw Calculations -Using Rollers, we can assume Tfriction is negligible -Assume Jmotor is negligible to Jload, Jlead FEA Force Calculations P14551 System Mass & Cog Info by Major Assembly

Documentation of System Components Mass and COG Information for the purposes of worst case scenario stress and defle ction analysis. Masses are in grams, COG measurements are in mm. Relative Coordinate transforms are accomplished through the solidworks measurement tool (#) denotes coordinate system used Motion System Z-Axis (3) Z-Axis+Ext. EMHI (3) Z-Axis+Ext. EMHI Low (3) Z-Axis+Ext. EMHI High (3) Y-Axis (single) (1) X-Axis+Z/EMHI (2) X/Z/EMHI One Sided, High X-Axis (2) X-Y-Single Z, EMHI Up X-Y-Z (1) X-Y-Z/EMHI 1->2 Assembly3->2 (1) 3->1 Mass* 3341.46 7433.12 7433.12 7433.12 5726.67 16497.69 16497.69 9064.67 22224.37 23859.38 27951.04 N/A N/A N/A Xcog* 30 29.53 29.53 29.53

60.16 V 427.35 V 427.49 V V -127.65 V V Ycog* 74.54 152.51 152.51 152.51 V 162.04 162.03 64.48 460.63 V V V 128.5 V Zcog* V V

324.27 154.06 54.76 V -36.48 55.9 -148.83 V V 183.025 -303.2 -486.225 *Cog coordinates are Relative, Need conversion between systems. ** V is for variable dependent upon axes positoning EMHI System MS Side (4) Dremel (5) Extruder (5) Combined Dremel (4) Combined Extruder (4) 5->4 Mass 1091.64 2124.55 2995.68 3220.53 4091.66 Xcog* 42.61 55 54.71

44.18 44.14 Ycog* 25.31 32.95 46.88 73.63 89.13 Zcog* 113.67 88.59 -15.61 159.81 88.59 4->3 N/A N/A -10 65.5615 95 Extruder (4) -15 129.5 V *Cog coordinates are Relative, Need conversion between systems.

4 1 3 2 5 2995.68 44.71 112.4415 79.39 FEA force calculations X-Rail Defle ction (single rail, full load, midpoint x loading) X Rail Zaxis+ High EMHI Adjusted COG Loading Propertie s Results Z Trans (mm) Y Trans (mm) Z1 COG (mm) Y1 COG (mm) Mass (kg) Z Force (N)X-Moment (N-m) Z Defle ction (mm) -354.375 24.075 -265.785 113.205 4.09166 40.13918 4.543956393 0.099436

X Trans Y Trans Z Trans -2.325 X Trans Y Trans -16.345 X-Carriage (EMHI High Position) Y3 COG Z3 COG Mass (kg) 29.53 150.185 -154.94 X3 cog -309 Z Trans -104.435 X2 COG -31.175 Ytrans

-84.445 Fz Ztrans -6.35 X1 Cog -90.403 http://www.awc.org/pdf/DA6-BeamFormulas.pdf 0.483106 mm 0.019019932 in "-All Rails evaluated as single, when all are double width "-All Carriages evaluated as a single panel, box frame in reality "-All Supports given simplified loading and supports "-Worst Cases do not actually stack on top of each other, occur at separate points e.g. max rail defle ction is minimum support defle ction/carriage defle ction max support/carriage defle ction is min rail defle ction Realistic Deflection is likely 1/2 to 1/4 lower Y Moment Z Deflection 10.97619563 0.01

Z Defle ction 29.73032819 0.16 Y-Support (Full Load, X,Y shifted over, EMHI worst case) Y1 Cog Z1 Cog Length of span Length-Ycog Mass (kg) Z Force (N) R1 Y Moment Mx*** Z Defle ction 343.045 454.28 -239.233 493 38.72 22.22437 218.0210697 214.1978 7.16782198 29.73033 0.04167 Y-Carriage (same loading as Y-rail, through holes for Force) My Mx Z Deflection 120.2878272

9.321309509 29.73032819 0.088 Total Worst Case Super Conservative Z Deflection: 73.0845 X-Support (Full Load, All on One Side) Y2 COG Z2 COG Length of Span Length-xcog Mass (kg) Z Force (N) R1 Y Moment M1 Z Defle ction (mm) 411.005 57.595 -67.655 1240 828.995 16.49769 161.8423389 120.2878 9.32130951 29.73033 0.084 Y-Rail (Full Load, All on one side X, midpoint Y) *No Trans needed, assume same loading as X-Support Fz My Mx

120.2878 9.32131 Xtrans Z Force (N) 7.45 FEA Force Calculations EMHI Study -Assembly study done in solidworks simulation using bolt connectors and fixed to z-axis Extruder Mass (kg) Fz (N) Y3 cog (mm) My (Nm) Max Stress (Mpa) Max Z Defle ction (mm) 3 29.43 46.88 1.379678 44.2 0.032 Worst Case Mass (kg) Fz (N) Y3 cog (mm) My (Nm) Max Stress (Mpa) Max Z Defle ction (mm) 7.5 68.85 50 3.4425

45.3 0.074 Electrical/Mechanical Head Interface(EHMI) Subsystem Pugh Chart P14551 EMHI Subsystem Parameter Number Criteria Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Judgement Criterion 1 2 3 4

Tongue and Solenoid Shaft and Solenoid with Solenoid Driven Locking with 2 Alignment Pins 1 Alignment Pinn Arms Ball Bearing/Roller Bearing Alignment Conceptual Image Linear Alignment (X,Y,Z) Rotational Alignment Active-off Mechanical Connection Reliability of Electrical Connection Amount of Custom Parts Machining Complexity Ease of Servicing Unit Complexity of Release Mechanism Overall Cost Total (+) Total (-) Net Score D A

T U M S S + S + + S ? + S - + + + S + S ? 0 0

0 3 1 2 1 7 -6 4 2 2 Speaker: Matt Storage Subsystem Pugh Chart P14551 Process Head Storage Subsystem Parameter Number Criteria Number

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

13 14 Judgement Criterion 1 2 3 4 5 6 Horizontal Pins with Horizontal Pins with Solenoid-Driven Pin Solenoid-Driven Pin Magentic Storage Vertical Pins with Z Z Motion Spring Loading Locking (Back Plate) Locking (Side Plates) Motion Conceptual Image Required Range of Z Motion Complexity of Storage Area Element Complexity of Process Head Element

Machining Complexity Estimated Cost Added Space Envelope for Storage Stablility Without Power Number of Actuating Elements Precision/Repeatability of storage location Total (+) Total (-) Net Score D A T U M + S S S - + + S +

+ + S S + + + + + S S + + + S S 0 0 0 1 5 -4

3 5 -2 3 4 -1 4 3 1 3 4 -1 Speaker: Nick Motion Control Pugh Chart P14551 Process Head Storage Subsystem Parameter Number Criteria

Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 Judgement Criterion 1 2 3 4 Basic Cartesian Ball Basic Cartesian Lead Complex Cartesian Wench - Cable Drive & Belt Drive & Chain Drive Ball & Belt Drive Conceptual Image Technical Difficulty Motion System Cost Load Bearing Capability Accuracy (X) Max Drive Speed (X)

Accuracy (Y) Max Drive Speed (Y) Accuracy (Z) Max Drive Speed (Z) Maintenance Requirements Total (+) Total (-) Net Score M S + S + + ? - ? S S S S S -

+ + + S + 0 0 0 3 4 -1 0 4 -4 4 5 -1 D A T U

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