Muscular System

Muscular System

Chapter 11 The Muscular System Lecture slides prepared by Curtis DeFriez, Weber State University Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Naming Muscles Location tibialis anterior Tibialis

anterior Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Naming Muscles Size gluteus maximus Number of Attachments o

biceps; triceps Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Naming Muscles Location/Direction of Fibers transversus abdominus Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Naming Muscles

Hyoid bone Styloid process Attachments (origin & insertion) o stylohyoid; sternocleidomas toid

Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Naming Muscles Muscle action levator scapulae adductor magnus tensor tympani Levator scapulae Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Naming Muscles

Combination of above Fibularis longus Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Origins and Insertions Muscles produce movement by exerting force on tendons which in turn pull on bones and other supporting structures like the skin. In order to produce movement around a joint, one bone must be stationary while another

bone moves. The attachment of a muscle's tendon to the Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Origins and Insertions Insertio n of the long head of the biceps

Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Origins and Insertions Biceps: Origin: Scapula Insertion: Radius Action: pronate and flex the arm Triceps: Origin: Scapula near shoulder joint Upper lateral and

posterior sites of humerus Posterior surface of humerus Insertion: Back of olecranon process of ulna Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Action: Straighten Musculoskeletal Levers Muscles, tendons, bones, and joints can form

three different types of levers in the body. When producing movement, bones act as levers, and joints function as the fixed point of movement called the fulcrum. In a lever, the point of movement (fulcrum) is acted on by two different forces: Effort and load. Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Musculoskeletal Levers There are few first-class levers in the body

Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Musculoskeletal Levers Second class levers always provide a distinct mechanical advantage in producing force. Like a pry bar Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Musculoskeletal Levers Third-class levers are the most common and favor speed and range of motion over maximum force.

Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Coordination Among Muscles Movements are often the result of several skeletal muscles acting as a group. Most skeletal muscles are arranged in opposing (antagonistic) pairs at joints. Within opposing pairs, the prime mover or agonist (the leader) is the muscle primarily responsible for causing the desired movement. Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Coordination Among Muscles The antagonist stretches and yields to the effects of the prime mover. In flexing the forearm at the elbow, the brachialis is the prime mover or agonists, and the triceps brachii is the antagonist. Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Coordination Among Muscles Synergists are muscles used to prevent

unwanted movements at intermediate joints, or otherwise aid the movement of the prime mover. The biceps acts synergistically with the brachialis. Fixator muscles are a type of synergist muscle that are used to steady the proximal joints of a Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Learn the origin, insertion and action of the major skeletal muscles of the body as directed by your instructor. Some of the more common muscles of the head and neck

include: Orbicularis oris Extraocular muscles Sternocleidomastoid Rectus abdominus External oblique Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles The muscles of facial expression move skin rather than bones around a joint. Orbicularis oris

Action: Closes and protrudes lips for kissing Origin: Surrounding the opening of the mouth Insertion: The skin at the corner of the mouth Orbiculari s oris Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles

Muscles that move the mandible (lower jaw) Also called muscles of mastication Masseter Origin: Maxilla and zygomatic arch Insertion: Mandible Action: Closes the mouth Masseter Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Major Skeletal Muscles The Extraocular muscles 3 pair give each eye very precise movement Origin: Back of the orbit Insertion: Different parts of the eyeball Action: Precise and rapid movement of the eyes Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the head

Sternocleidomastoid (commonly abbreviated as SCM) Origin: Clavicle and sternum Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal bone Action: Flex and rotateSternocleidomastoi the head d Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Some of the more common muscles that

originate on the trunk include: Pectoralis major and minor Anterior abdominal muscle group Latissimus dorsi Biceps brachii Diaphragm Trapezius Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the pectoral girdle (shoulder) Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Origin: Clavicle and Origin: Ribs 35 sternum Insertion: Coracoid

Insertion: Proximal process of the humerus scapula Action: Adducts and Action: Internally

medially rotates the rotates the shoulder arm at the shoulder joint Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the pectoral girdle (shoulder) Deltoid Muscle

Origin: Lateral clavicle andDeltoid upper scapula Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity on the shaft of the humerus Action: Abducts, flexes, and medially rotates the upper arm at the shoulder joint Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the pectoral girdle (shoulder) Trapezius

Origin: Occipital bone and Trapezius cervical spine Insertion: Clavicle, scapula and lower thoracic vertebrae Action: Supports the arm and moves the scapula up, down, Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the pectoral girdle

(shoulder) Latissimus dorsi Origin: Thoracic and lumbar vertebrae and the iliac bone Insertion: Mid-humerus Latissimus Action: Drives arm inferiorly dorsi and posteriorly (the swimmers muscle) Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Major Skeletal Muscles Anterior abdominal wall Rectus abdominis Origin: Pubic bone Insertion: Ribs and sternum External oblique Origin: Ribs 512 Insertion: Iliac crest and linea alba Actions: Flexes vertebral column and compresses abdomen Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Major Skeletal Muscles The main muscle of inspiration is the diaphragm. Origin: Inferior 6 ribs (anteriorly) and lumbar vertebrae (posteriorly) Insertion: Central tendon Diaphragm Central

tendon Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Some of the more common muscles of the extremities include: Triceps brachii Quadriceps group: Rectus Brachioradialis

femoris, along with the Thenar muscles vastus lateralis, vastus Hypothenar muscles intermedius, and vastus medialis Gluteus maximus Biceps femoris Tibialis anterior Gastrocnemius

Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the Radius and Ulna Biceps brachii Origin: Scapula Insertion: Radius Action: Flexes and Brachialis Origin: Distal anterior surface of humerus

Insertion: Ulna supinates forearm at Action: Flexor of elbow joint and flexes forearm at elbow arm at shoulder joint Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the Radius and Ulna Triceps brachii Origin: Scapula and posterior surface of humerus Insertion: Olecranon process of ulna Action: Extends forearm at elbow joint and arm at shoulder joint Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the Radius and Ulna Brachioradialis Origin: Humerus Insertion: Distal radius Action: Supinates the forearm at the radioulnar joint Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the wrist, hand, thumb, and finger

Thenar: lateral aspect of palm Hypothenar: medial aspect of palm Thenar Action: Oppose thumb Hypothenar against other 4 fingers Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles

Muscles that move the femur Gluteus maximus Origin: Iliac crest, sacrum, and coccyx Insertion: Femur Action: Extends and Gluteus maximus laterally rotates thigh at hip joint

Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the femur, tibia, and fibula Quadricep group (Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis) Origin: Iliac spine and proximal femur Insertion: Patella and proximal tibia

Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the femur, tibia, and fibula Hamstring group: (Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, and Semimembranosus) Origin: Ischial tuberosity Insertion: Proximal Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Major Skeletal Muscles Muscles that move the femur, tibia, and fibula Tibialis anterior Origin: Tibia Insertion: First cuneiform and first metatarsal Action: Dorsiflexes and inverts the foot Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles

Muscles that plantar flex the foot at the ankle joint (standing on tip toes) Gastrocnemius and soleus muscles function as one often called the gastrocsoleus muscle Origin: Femur, capsule of knee, and head of fibula Insertion: Calcaneus by way of calcaneal (Achilles) tendon Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles

Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Major Skeletal Muscles Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Imbalances of Homeostasis Exercise-induced muscle damage After intense exercise, electron micrographs reveal considerable muscle damage including torn sarcolemmas and disrupted Z-discs. Blood levels of proteins normally confined only to muscle (including myoglobin and the

enzyme, creatine kinase) increase as they are released from damaged muscle. Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Imbalances of Homeostasis Spasm A sudden involuntary contraction of a single muscle within a large group of muscles usually painless Cramp Involuntary and often painful muscle contractions Caused by inadequate blood flow to muscles

Copyright John Wiley & Sons,injury, Inc. All rights reserved. (such as in dehydration), overuse and Imbalances of Homeostasis Disease States and Disorders Fibrosis (myofibrosis) Replacement of muscle fibers by excessive amounts of connective tissues (fibrous scar

tissue) Myosclerosis Hardening of the muscle caused by calcification Both myosclerosis and muscle fibrosis occur Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Imbalances of Homeostasis Aging

In part due to decreased levels of physical activity, with aging, humans undergo a slow, progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass that is replaced largely by fibrous connective tissue and adipose tissue. Muscle strength at 85 is about half that at age 25. Compared to the other two fiber types, the Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. End of Chapter 11 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights

reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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