Muting as a social action in ICT mediated business meetings
Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics Accomplishing leadership through possibilities and constraints of materiality in a virtual team meetings Liv Otto Hassert PhD Student Maersk Line and Centre for Interaction Research and Communication Design, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Lise Dahl Arvedsen PhD Student, Institute of Organisation, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark 3rd Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Leadership Symposium What leaders actually do 10-12 May 2018, Chania, Greece
Outline Research Question & Key Findings Literature Data and method Data excerpts and findings Concluding remarks Key Points Research Question: How are the material resources used in the process of doing leadership in virtual team meetings?
Key Findings: Leadership as influence is produced in the mundane, virtual meeting interaction Control of virtual tools as a necessity and resource to do leadership in virtual situations Active sharing of control of the virtual tool enables shared leadership Lines of research informing our study Discursive leadership studies Leadership studies Project studies
Practice studies Studies of virtual interaction Studies of virtual teams Business meeting studies Shared/
distributed/ participant leadership Central literature Larsson & Lundholm, 2010 leadership, here understood as a process of interpersonal influence towards organizational goals, occurs precisely in the midst of those mundane work activities, constituting management Change of focus from inner mental conditions to close analysis of talk-in-interaction - everyday routines as vital aspects of processes of leadership Yulk, 2012 leadership in organizations is influencing and facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives Leader actions: Task-oriented, relations-oriented, change-oriented, external DeRue & Ashford, 2010 Leadership "is not something the leader possesses" ... rather, it expresses a recognized relationship among individuals (p. 629)
They propose a conception of leadership identity that invokes all three levels of self construal... a leadership identity comprises three elements: individual internalization, relational recognition, and collective endorsement. Leader-follower relationships are based on identity work, in which individuals claim" an identity and others affirm or "grant" that identity. Following this leadership can be seen as a social construction between two or more actors. (p. 631) Data Total hours of observations 281 hours Number of meetings 110 meetings Number of interviews
21 Number of companies represented: Number of international teams Nationalities represented in the data: Germany India 6 Companies 24 Denmark United Kingdom
Holland United States of America Finland France Belgium Sweden The nation of Brunei Ukraine Norway
Australia Czech republic Spain Method: Conversation Analysis Talk as action: CA focus on how talk makes things happen. CA is now a settled discipline, developed since the pioneering work in the 1960s by the sociologist Harvey Sacks. Inspired by ethnomethodology (Garfinkel) Analytical focus on social interaction: The moment-by-moment unfolding of actions (Psathas 1995) Audio and/or video recordings of authentic interaction Unmotivated looking- inductive approach phenomena emerge from the data CA focus on actions and their design, turn taking and sequential positioning, and the implications for participants identities and relations (Pomerantz and Fehr 2011).
Years of accumulated findings on the mechanics of talk Applied to study professional interaction and organizational talk (Antaki 2011; Boden 1994; Heritage & Clayman 2010) Studies of how professionals interactionally produce e.g. decisions, strategizing, leadership (Clifton 2009, 2014, 2015; Huisman 2001; Larsson & Lundholm 2013; SamraFredericks 2003) Our main RQ: How are the material resources used in the process of doing leadership in virtual team meetings? Data ex 1: International IT Project Team Data ex 1: International IT Project Team Virtual daily meeting via Webex Call and screen sharing
Virtual tool: Kanban board Workflow board which visualizes status of ongoing, completed, and future activities, and task delegation Participants: DK: The project manager Adam and one team member UK: One team member IN: Team lead Saransh and one vendor team member Data ex 1: International IT Project Team Data ex 1
Findings: Situational performance of (institutional) roles, e.g. chair and manager The manager controls the virtual tool Influence the flow the interaction Closely coordinated movements and talk Virtual tool is used to: Monitor and organize work task before, insitu, and onwards Produce shared understandings Do leadership
Data ex 2: Global Controlling Team Data ex 2: Global Controlling Team Monthly meeting via Skype for Business: - Call, screen sharing and some video. Purpose of meeting: - Review of budgeting process. - Team member (ANN) has been appointed to facilitate this review, and capture all feedback into a PPT for further future actions. Participants in this piece of data (9 at the meeting) : - SIM: Team manager, DK, but sits in UK for this meeting - ANN: Team member in FI, facilitating the feedback process - KAT: Team member in DK - ASY: Team member in DE Data ex 2: Global Controlling Team
Data ex 2 Findings: Facilitator of feedbacksession (ANN) is in control of the PPT Situational performance of institutional roles SIM: Relations Oriented BUT additionally shared leadership by ANN: Task & Change Oriented Virtual tool is used to: Produce shared understandings Claim leadership identity Do leadership
Concluding remarks Leadership as influence is produced in the mundane, virtual meeting interaction Leader roles are shaped by the performance of situational identities with respect to: 1) Actions and 2) chair role/control of virtual tool Control of virtual tools as a necessity and resource to do leadership in virtual situations: Production of situational leader identities through social interaction and access to the virtual resources
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